Given that PRV is an oral vaccine, these results likely reflect t

Given that PRV is an oral vaccine, these results likely reflect that, in developing countries, oral vaccines have a history of being less immunogenic than in the developed world. These differences of oral vaccines have been

postulated due to differences in the level of transplacentally acquired maternal antibody, immune and non-immune components of breast milk, the amount of gastric acid in the digestive tract, micronutrient malnutrition, interfering gut flora, and diarrheal and immune system disease [15], [27], [28] and [29]. In the case of Bangladesh versus Vietnam, the reasons for the decreased RAD001 clinical trial immunogenicity of PRV in Bangladeshi infants may be due to a combination of the differences in host populations and their associated health conditions, which include malnutrition Metabolism inhibitor and concomitant infections of the gut with several enteropathogens. In addition, the PD3 anti-rotavirus IgA GMT levels were also reduced in Asian subjects when compared to those of subjects in developed world

countries [12], [13], [18], [21], [22], [23] and [24]. The GMT (69.3 dilution units/mL) of the serum anti-rotavirus IgA at PD3 of Asian subjects was approximately 2-fold lower than those measured 14 or 42 days after Dose 3 in subjects in developed countries. However, once again, the pattern was not the same when the two countries were evaluated separately. The GMT level of the serum anti-rotavirus

IgA at PD3 of Bangladeshi subjects was 29.1 dilution units/mL, approximately 5- to 10-fold lower than those measured 14 or 42 days after Dose 3 in subjects in developed countries, while the PD3 GMT level of the serum IgA in Vietnamese subjects (158.5 dilution units/mL) was approximately the same as those measured 14 or 42 days after Dose 3 in subjects in the EU and Latin America [21] and [24]. The clinical significance of these observations is not understood because an immune correlate of TCL protection has not been established. SNA responses to each of the five human serotypes, G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1A[8], contained in PRV were also evaluated at pD1 and PD3 in Asian subjects. The results showed a ≥3-fold rise in SNA responses to rotavirus serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and P1A[8] in varying percentages in the Asian subjects. A consistent and similar pattern was observed when the data from Bangladesh and Vietnam were compared to those of the African subjects [25] and [26]. For serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1A[8], the ≥3-fold SNA response rates in Bangladeshi subjects were approximately 50, 30, 10, 35, and 40 percentage points, respectively, lower than those exhibited by subjects in the US, EU, Taiwan, Korea, and Latin America [12], [13], [18], [21], [22], [23] and [24].

Future analyses will examine data on AGE episodes among vaccine v

Future analyses will examine data on AGE episodes among vaccine versus placebo recipients to determine if there is a differential effect of treatment group on malnutrition among participants experiencing all-cause AGE, rotavirus AGE, and severe rotavirus AGE. This study sought to determine if rotavirus vaccination could improve indicators of malnutrition, but did not observe this to happen. However, the findings of this study should not detract from the importance of implementing rotavirus vaccination in developing countries. Rotavirus accounts for a significant number of severe illnesses and deaths, and certainly buy Crizotinib has an important impact on child health. Regardless of the unproven impact of

rotavirus vaccination on child growth in this study, rotavirus vaccination has already been shown to have an important impact on reducing gastroenteritis hospitalizations and child deaths from diarrhea in developing countries [25], [26], [27], [28] and [29]. Research studies on the impact of rotavirus vaccination on child health should continue as the vaccines are introduced in more developing countries. The PRV study was conducted at the ICCDR,B Matlab field site in Bangladesh in collaboration with and with

funding from PATH’s Rotavirus Vaccine Program under a grant from the GAVI Alliance and Merck Research Laboratories. This study would not have been possible without the cooperation of the mothers and children in Matlab who were willing to participate, the community health research workers and female field workers who administered the vaccines and collected the data, and the rest of the supporting staff at

the Matlab field site. Andrea C646 mouse Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase J. Feller is supported by the Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Eye Institute Training Grant#EY07127, Clinical Trials Training Program in Vision Research. Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest. “
“Rotavirus continues to be the leading cause of severe diarrhoea in Asia among young children in both high- and low-income countries [1]. In the region, approximately 45% of all diarrhoea related hospitalizations among children less than 5 years of age have been found to be attributable to rotavirus [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8] and [9]. Vaccination holds the best hope for the reduction of rotavirus-associated mortality and morbidity [3]. Given that rotavirus causes such a large proportion (25–60%) of all hospitalizations for diarrhoea, it is possible that a safe, effective and affordable rotavirus vaccine could result in a significant reduction in overall childhood mortality in the region. Two rotavirus vaccines, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV; RotaTeq®, Merck & Co. Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ) and the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (MRV; Rotarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals Inc., Rixensart, Belgium), have been licensed in many Asian countries and have obtained global WHO pre-qualification [10].

These viruses are not subject to any specific testing for adventi

These viruses are not subject to any specific testing for adventitious viruses. The corresponding vaccine must be manufactured, tested

and distributed within only a few months in order to meet vaccination schedules [20], [21] and [22]. Because of this short timeline, conventional broad spectrum testing of the influenza virus seed for adventitious agents cannot be performed in time, selleck chemicals particularly if one considers that months may be needed to prepare virus from an independent source and specific antibodies against the same to neutralise the influenza virus. For conventional egg-derived viral seeds it is commonly assumed and supported by historical safety records, that many adventitious viruses are removed by egg passages. Because cell-derived influenza virus isolates learn more are now being considered for use as starting material for vaccine manufacture, information

is needed about the behaviour of adventitious viruses during cultivation of influenza viruses in suitable cell substrates. Our studies contribute such information for a cell line that is qualified for influenza vaccine manufacture. The result presented here should be seen in context with specifically designed growth studies with a wide range of potentially contaminating viruses, which, along with the results of a systematic literature search on growth of viruses in MDCK cells, have been published previously, [8] and [9]. In those studies a standard amount of 106 infectious units (TCID50) per 100 ml culture was inoculated those into MDCK 33016 cells and the cells were grown for at least 14 days (21 days for slow-growing viruses) in CDM growth medium. High dilution passaging was avoided but samples of suspended cells and medium were taken at regular intervals to be tested for the virus, and an adequate amount of fresh medium was added after sampling to maintain cell growth. The agents studied included: three human adenovirus (types 1, 5, 6), herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, parainfluenzavirus 3 and SV-5, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) type A and B, human coronavirus 229E,

human enterovirus species (Coxsackie A16, Coxsackie B30, Echovirus 6, poliovirus type 1), two human metapneumo virus strains, three different rhinoviruses, mammalian reovirus-3, BK polyomavirus, simian virus 40 (SV-40), budgerigar fledgling disease polyomavirus, avian C-type retrovirus (Rous sarcoma virus), avian infectious bursal disease birnavirus, two avian reovirus strains, minute virus of mice (MVM) parvovirus and porcine circovirus. Furthermore, the growth of Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Chlamydia trachomatis were assessed. In those studies high virus growth was observed for parainfluenzavirus 3, SV5 and herpes simplex virus, slow growth was seen with mammalian reovirus 3, and questionable results (very low or no growth) were noted for the two avian reovirus. No growth was observed for the other viruses and agents tested.

Genome length viral RNA was transcribed and the integrity of RNA

Genome length viral RNA was transcribed and the integrity of RNA transcripts was analyzed in 1% agarose gels containing 6% formaldehyde. An Talazoparib in vitro RNA band of approximately 11,000 nucleotides was obtained, indicating the presence of WNV full-length

RNA (data not shown). To characterize the ability of the transcribed RNA to replicate and to be translated after introduction in host cells, viral protein expression was examined by immunofluorescence (IF) staining. The WNVsyn RNA was electroporated into Vero cells which were subjected to indirect IF staining 2 days later (Fig. 2). Viral protein expression was monitored with a specific polyclonal mouse anti-WNV antibody and a FITC-conjugated second antibody (see Section 2). Cells infected with MOI 0.0001 of WNVwt and were used as staining control. WNVsyn-transfected and WNVwt-infected Vero cells exhibited WNV protein expression in approximately 20% of all cells. As expected, viral antigen staining is mainly confined to perinuclear regions of the cells (Fig. 2). Immunofluorescence staining is only detectable from replication- NVP-BGJ398 nmr and translation-competent viral templates and could not be shown in replication-deficient mutant

viral genomes [19] and [25] thus proving the replication and protein expression capacity of the synthetic WNV genome. In order to further analyze the genotypic and phenotypic properties, a stock of the synthetic WNV was produced. Confluent Vero cells were transfected as described above and upon onset of cytopathic effect (CPE) after 3 days, cell culture medium was harvested and the virus titer Ketanserin was determined on Vero cells, yielding a titer of 1.62 × 108

TCID50/ml. Overlapping DNA fragments which cover the whole WNVsyn genomic coding region were amplified by PCR after cDNA transcription of isolated viral RNA. Sequencing confirmed that the rescued viral material contained no mutations compared to the in silico designed WNV genome and the presence of the engineered nucleotide changes proved the identity of the synthetic virus. In addition, in order to show IF staining behavior in Vero cells not only after transfection of RNA, cells were infected with MOI 0.0001 of WNVsyn and processed for IF as described above. As expected, the WNVsyn virus stock gave rise to a similar staining pattern as seen for the WNVwt stock ( Fig. 2d). In order to analyze the growth properties of WNVsyn and WNVwt, one step growth curves were carried out. Susceptible mammalian (Vero) and mosquito (C6/36) cells were infected with a MOI of 0.0001. Viral titers, determined at the time points indicated in Fig. 3, demonstrate that in both cell types the growth kinetics of WNVsyn match exactly those of the wild-type virus. In addition, plaque morphology (Fig. 3a and b) and CPE (not shown) were comparable to the wild-type control.

In addition, an overview of studies that have taken place in low-

In addition, an overview of studies that have taken place in low-income

countries since 1983 estimated the one-week prevalence of knee pain in people 15 years and over to be 14% (Davatchi 2006), whereas the point prevalence of knee pain in our cohort was substantially higher at 25% (95% CI 20 to 30). A possible explanation for the high prevalence of knee pain found in our study may be the large amount of squatting and lifting (Cozzensa da Silva et al 2007) and climbing up and down steep terrain that was observed. Previous studies have suggested that squatting and excessive loading on the knee over long periods is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis (Hurwitz et al 2000, PLX-4720 price Miyazaki et al 2002, Tangtrakulwanich et al 2007). Stair climbing has been shown to generate high forces and torques in the patellofemoral joint, increasing

the risk of painful osteoarthritis in this joint (Hunter et al 2007). Similarly, a study in China found a 4% higher age-adjusted prevalence of knee pain in people living in multi-storey buildings without elevators compared with those living in single-story buildings (p < 0.01) ( Zeng et al 2005). Dietary deficiencies may also explain the high prevalence of knee pain. Kashin-Beck disease, which causes restriction of movement and joint deformity, is endemic to Tibet and associated with low socioeconomic status, poor diet, and iodine deficiency (Suetens et al 2001, Yang et al 2002). Rickets (Vitamin D and calcium deficiency in children), which often results in substantial varus malalignment of

Ribociclib supplier the knee (Cerejo et al 2002), is also common in this region, and may contribute to the presence of knee pain (Harris et al 2001). Another factor contributing to the high prevalence of knee pain could simply be the lack of access to health care. For example, knee replacement surgery for severe knee osteoarthritis is not an option in rural Tibet. Consistent with reports from other Asian and low-income countries, Mephenoxalone this study found a higher knee-to-hip pain ratio than that found in high-income countries (Davatchi 2006, Nevitt et al 2002). The ratio was 3.6:1 in this Tibetan population and 4.7:1 in the overview of studies in low-income countries since 1983 (Davatchi 2006). In contrast, the ratio ranged from only 1.4:1 to 2:1 in Hungary and the UK (Dawson et al 2003, Horvath et al 2006, Urwin et al 1998). The lower prevalence of hip pain relative to knee pain in the rural Tibetan population may be due to a lower prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, Perthes disease, and obesity (Lau et al 1995). While spending hours squatting is thought to be a risk factor for chronic knee pain, it has also been hypothesised that it may protect against hip pain in Asian countries (Lau et al 1995).

Incubation was stopped after 5 or 7 min for hippocampus and corte

Incubation was stopped after 5 or 7 min for hippocampus and cortex, respectively, with three ice-cold washes of 1 ml HBSS, immediately followed by the addition of

0.5 N NaOH, which was then kept overnight. An aliquot of 10 μl was removed to protein determination. Unspecific uptake was measured using the same protocol described above, with differences in the temperature (4 °C) and medium composition (choline chloride instead of sodium chloride). Na+-dependent uptake was considered as the difference between the total uptake and the unspecific uptake. Incorporated radioactivity was measured using a liquid scintillation counter (Wallac 1409). Results were expressed as SCH727965 cell line pmol [3H]glutamate uptake/mg protein min−1. Synaptosomal preparations were obtained by isotonic Percoll/sucrose discontinuous gradients at 4 °C, as previously described (Dunkley et al., 1986) with few modifications. Briefly, MI-773 homogenates (10%, w/v) from cortex and hippocampus were made in 0.32 M sucrose, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 6.25 mM dithiotreitol (DDT) (pH 7.4), and centrifuged at 800g for 10 min. The supernatants containing synaptosomes were subjected to 23%, 15%, 7% and 3% Percoll solution density gradient centrifugation at 24,000g for 10 min. The synaptosomal fractions were isolated, suspended and homogenized in buffered HBSS containing low K+ (pH 7.4), containing in mM: 133 NaCl, 2.4 KCl, 1.2 KH2PO4, 1.09 MgSO4, 27.7 HEPES, 1.2 glucose and 0.001 CaCl2

and centrifuged at 21,000g for 15 min. The supernatant was removed and the pellet gently resuspended in HBSS buffer. Determination of [3H]glutamate release was accomplished as described by Migues et al. (1999). Prior to the release assay, synaptosomal preparations

from cortex and hippocampus of mice were loaded with labeled [3H]glutamate for 15 min at 37 °C. Incubation was performed in a non-depolarizing medium (low potassium), containing, in mM: HEPES 27, NaCl 133, KCl 2.4, MgSO4 1.2, KH2PO4 1.2, glucose 12, CaCl2 1.0 in the presence of 0.5 μM of glutamate (0.1 μCi Thalidomide [3H]glutamate). Aliquots of labeled synaptosomal preparations were centrifuged at 16,000g for 1 min. Supernatants were discarded and the pellets were washed four times in the medium by centrifugation at 16,000g for 1 min (at 4 °C). To assess the basal release of [3H]glutamate, the final pellet was resuspended in the same buffer and incubated for 1 min at 37 °C. Incubation was terminated by immediate centrifugation (16,000g for 1 min). Radioactivity present in supernatants and pellets was separately determined. The [3H]glutamate release was calculated as the percentage of total amount of radiolabel glutamate present at the start of the incubation period in preloaded synaptosomes. Protein concentration was measured according to Bradford (1976), using bovine serum albumin (1 mg/ml) as the standard. Step-through latencies are expressed as median and interquartile range, since these data demonstrated a non parametric distribution.

C -Y W , C -C C , C -H C , C -C L , and J -R C designed research

C.-Y.W., C.-C.C., C.-H.C., C.-C.L., and J.-R.C. designed research;

C.-Y.W., C.-Y.C., H.-H.M., C.-W.W., Y.-T.C., and J.-R.C performed research; C.-Y.W., C.-Y.C., H.-H.M., C.-W.W., Y.-T.C., and J.-R.C analyzed data; and C.-Y.W., P.-W.H., C.-H.C., C.-C.L., and J.-R.C wrote the paper. We thank Adimmune Corporation Chairman Dr. Chi-Hsien Chan for his intensive support this research work and lead a team to develop the H7N9 influenza vaccine in Taiwan. We also thank the Electron Microscopy Core Facilities of Academia Sinica for TEM technical support of this study. The authors thank for their excellent technical assistance Chih-Heng Chen, Hsiu-Fen Tai, Yu-Chih Yang, Dr. Wan-Hsin IWR-1 cell line Liu and Chia-Ho Kuo. “
“In England, girls age 12–13 years are offered free human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in a school-based programme launched in 2008. The programme has achieved high coverage, with latest figures showing that 84%

and 81% of eligible girls in the first (2008/9) and second (2009/10) cohorts to be offered the HPV vaccine have received all three doses as recommended [1]. This relatively new cervical cancer control policy is complemented by a long-standing call–recall screening programme for women aged 25–64 years, in which women receive regular screening invitations by post. Women aged 25–49 years are invited every 3 years and women aged 50–64 years are invited every this website 5 years. Written not invitations ask women to make an appointment for a Pap test with their general practitioner or primary care nurse. The programme is funded by the NHS and is free at the point of delivery. Screening uptake in women aged 25–64 years is high, with 78% having been screened at least once in the previous 5 years [2]. Despite the successful screening programme, almost 3000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the UK, and about 900 women die of the disease [3]. Modelling studies have estimated that 80% vaccine coverage will result in a 63% decrease in cervical cancer incidence in 20–29 year old women by 2025 [4]. However this assumes

an equal level of baseline risk of cervical cancer in vaccinated and unvaccinated girls. If unvaccinated girls are, in fact, at higher risk of cervical cancer for reasons other than their vaccination status (e.g. early sexual debut, smoking or non-attendance at screening), then the true impact of the vaccination programme may be less than has been anticipated. In their modelling study, Cuzick and colleagues acknowledge that it is unknown whether non-participation in vaccination and screening will be independent of one another. They raise the possibility that vaccinated women may perceive less need for screening, but also that factors like deprivation may be associated with non-participation in both programmes [4].

6, 7,

6, 7, ABT199 8, 9 and 10 It has been noted that approximately 35%

Acinetobacter species were found to be resistant to carbapenem drugs in India. 3 and 11 There are several factors contributing to antibiotic resistance development in A. baumannii among them metallo-β-lactamases (carbapenemases) are predominant. 11 and 12 Carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamases (carbapenemase) belong to class B β-lactamases which can hydrolyze all β-lactams except monobactams. The IMP and VIM are the most prevalent types of acquired carbapenemase.13 Additionally, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) producing A. baumannii are increasingly reported nowadays. 14 The treatment of MDR bacterial infections such as the carbapenemase producing A. baumannii is a major concern to clinicians and continues to be problematic. Clinically, these pathogens are becoming more and more resistant to the old and some of the more recently

developed antimicrobials agents due to non availability of mechanism to fight resistance. Above data indicates that the existing antibiotics being used to treat infections caused by A. baumannii are getting resistant. Surveillance studies provide significant information regarding resistance patterns among common MDR bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to conduct a microbial surveillance across different states in India to study incidence and prevalence 3-deazaneplanocin A solubility dmso of carbapenemase producing genes among multidrug resistant A. baumannii isolates and to study the behavior of the current treatment options to this bug over by antimicrobial susceptibility study under Elores Antimicrobial Susceptibility Evaluation (EASE) programme. The following antibiotics were used

in this study: ceftriaxone plus EDTA plus sulbactam; Elores, a novel antibiotic adjuvant entity (30:10:15 μg), piperacillin plus tazobactam (100:10 μg), imipenem (10 μg), meropenem (10 μg), doripenem (10 μg) colistin (10 μg) and tigecycline (15 μg). All of the discs were obtained from Hi-Media Laboratories Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India. This prospective study was conducted from May 2012 to January 2013. In this study, a total of 454 clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected from blood (n = 136), urine (n = 165), pus (n = 94), fluid (n = 44), respiratory secretion (n = 15) from different centers of India including Delhi, Kolkatta, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Aligarh and Chennai (name of centers is not disclosed due to confidentiality agreement). All the samples were collected with aseptic precautions from ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), sepsis, secondary meningitis, catheter associated blood stream infections (CA-BSI), surgical site infections (SSI) and catheter associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) from ICU patients. The identity of all strains was reconfirmed morphologically and by conventional biochemical methods.

05) We analyzed these findings with respect to the meteorologica

05). We analyzed these findings with respect to the meteorological data obtained for both years. The mean values obtained for relative humidity and temperature were significantly lower in 2012 (45.9% ± 21.7%, 17.8 °C ± 4.7 °C) than in 2010 (52.9% ± 21.6%, 19.4 °C ± 4.1 °C) (P = 0.004/0.0073) (Indian Meteorological

Department, Government of India, Pune). Our data indicated a deviation of rotavirus infections toward lower humidity and temperature as described previously in eastern India [12]. G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8] and G9P[8] are the most common rotavirus strains circulating worldwide. Throughout the study period, G1P[8] rotavirus strains showed highest prevalence, except in the year 2009 where G9P[8] was the predominant strain. Although G2P[4] has been described as the second most predominant Crizotinib research buy strain in other regions of India [4] and [13], we found learn more variation in its prevalence in comparison

with other commonly detected rotavirus strain, G9P[8]. An earlier study from Pune identified the G3P[8] strain once in the year 2005 [3] and was detected only once in this study. Other studies have documented the absence of this strain and the G4P[8] strain indicating that they are uncommon in India. Earlier rotavirus strain surveillance marked the circulation of unusual combinations of G and P types (G1P[4], G1P[6], G2P[6], G2P[8], G2P[10], G4P[4], G9P[4], G9P[6], G10P[6], G10P[8])

[3] and [4]. As against this, the present study detected only a limited number of such G-P combinations (G1P[4], G2P[6], G2P[8], G4P[4] and G9P[4]) with a notable contribution of G9P[4] strains. The year 2009 witnessed the highest diversity in circulating rotavirus strains in comparison with the years 2010–2012. Interestingly, the percentage of mixed infections was also highest (27.1%) in 2009 and found to decline to 0% in 2012. Thus, the proportion of mixed infections of rotavirus may correlate with the extent of diversity in rotavirus strains. In the same year, G9P[8] strains which are considered the fifth most common strains, displaced G1P[8] strains known to be predominant unless globally. Subsequent to this, the prevalence of G9P[8] strains declined after attaining the highest score in the year 2010. This was followed by a marked increase in the circulation of rare G9P[4] strains. It is possible that the occurrence of these strains could be a result of reassortment between G9P[8] and G2P[4] strains. Generation of such a reassortment has been proposed previously [14] and [15]. It is hypothesized that unusual combinations of G and P types are unfit for survival and hence do not stabilize in the environment [16]. In view of this, the continuous increase in the number of G9P[4] strains vis-a-vis a decrease in G9P[8] strains identified in the present study needs to be monitored further.

7 Microorganism isolated from array of habitats have expressed im

7 Microorganism isolated from array of habitats have expressed immense potential in production of nanoparticles one such habitat is marine. Marine microorganisms are known to thrive in unique niches such as tolerate high salt concentration, extreme atmospheric pressure etc. These microbes

are known to have been explored with interest as source of novel bioactive factories synthesizing various functional metabolites displaying unique properties. However, these marine microbes are not sufficiently explored with regards to synthesis of nanoparticles few reports cited expressed the burgeoning interest among the researchers selleck in exploiting the mechanisms of marine microbes for nanoparticle synthesis. As marine resource is one of the richest sources in the nature, marine microorganisms employed in production of nanoparticles are in infancy stage. Therefore, a possibility of exploring marine microbes as nanofactories forms a rational and reliable route in production of nanoparticles compared to the most popular conventional methods

which are bound with limitations such as expensive, use of toxic elements MS-275 chemical structure in production protocols resulting limited applications in pharmaceutical and health sector. The present review envisions the role of marine microbes as emerging resource in synthesis of nanoparticles. The study also display so far reported marine microbial diversity in synthesis of nanoparticles, further research in this area will be promising enough to engulf the limitation of conventional methods forming a new avenue for rapid synthesis of nanoparticles with technical dimension. Nanoparticles are particles with at least one dimension at nanoscale. Nanoparticles exist widely in the natural world as product PD184352 (CI-1040) of natural phenomena such as photochemical

volcanic activity, ocean spray, forest-fire smoke, clouds and clay combustion and food cooking, and more recently from vehicle exhausts.3 Owing to their unique properties nanoparticles are known to have wide range of applications the potential of nanoparticles is infinite with novel new applications constantly being explored.4 Nanoparticles are synthesis by array of conventional methods which are divided into top down and bottom up processes (Fig. 1). In top down process the synthesis of nanoparticles from the bulk material is carried out by various lithographic techniques. In bottom up process is based on miniaturization at molecular level forming the nuclei and their growth into nanoparticles. These conventional methods are very popular and widely employed in synthesis of nanoparticles but are bounded with their own limitations such as expensive, use of high energy and use of hazardous toxic chemicals. Hence there is a burgeoning interest in eco-friendly process of nanoparticles production with precise control of size and desired shape.