On the other hand, buy GSK126 the larval weight of the other three treatments increased from four to five folds. It was also noted that at day three, the larval weight was slightly decreased for all the four treatments, but was not significant ( Fig. 2A). There was no significance difference between (LEC-8+Cry1Ac) and LEC-8 treatments under the experiment conditions during most of the experimental period. In the second bioassay experiment, we observed that when the larvae were pre-fed with 100 mM lactose, then LEC-8 and Cry1Ac, the tolerance of the insect larvae reduced about 24% (indicated by reduced larval weight), compared with those treated with LEC-8 and Cry1Ac. This indicated that
pre-treatment with lactose could increase the susceptibility of insect larvae to Cry1Ac toxin at day 9 (Fig. 2B). Since pre-feeding LEC-8 reduces the toxicity of Cry1Ac to H. armigera larvae, and Cry1Ac toxin was found to interact with insect glycolipids , we tested whether LEC-8 also binds to insect glycolipids in a similar way just as the case in nematode . Based on the orcinol staining result, there were at least seven bands stained with orcinol. There were two bands around the areas where glycolipids with long chain oligosaccharides
positioned ( Fig. 3A, arrows). After overlay with LEC-8 and Cry1Ac, it was found that both bind to the glycolipids in the same oligosaccharides’ areas. However, it was also noticed that neither LEC-8 (arrows in Fig. 3A) nor Cry1Ac  binds to those glycolipids. To further test the effect of LEC-8 on the Cry1Ac binding to glycolipid, the HPTLC plate was pre incubated with LEC-8, Atezolizumab cost then overlaid with Cry1Ac. We found that the binding capacity of the Cry1Ac was decreased in certain degree (Fig. 3B). Given both LEC-8 and Cry1Ac bind to glycolipids in a similar way, and pre-incubation of HPTLC with LEC-8 could reduce the binding of Cry1Ac to the glycolipids on the plate, a microplate method was used to investigate whether
the reduced susceptibility Sinomenine to Cry1Ac after pre-feeding with LEC-8 was related to the inhibition effect of LEC-8 on Cry1Ac binding to glycolipids. The binding property of both Cry1Ac and LEC-8 could bind to glycolipids in a concentration-dependent manner (Fig. 4A and B). Comparing with Cry1Ac, the binding of LEC-8 to glycolipids was about one fifth of the absorbance value when both at the highest concentration (140 nM). When the mixture of 20 nM Cry1Ac and various concentration of LEC-8 were incubated with glycolipids, the binding of Cry1Ac to glycolipids were gradually decreased along with the increased ratio of LEC-8 over Cry1Ac (Fig. 4C). The inhibition effect reached to a maximum 30% of decline even the concentration of LEC-8 reached to 500 nM. To further test the sugar terminal component, HA and HAI were performed. After incubation with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), LEC-8 was found to have lectin effect on SRBCs.