Physalin B may be an excellent compound to reduce parasite
transmission and control Chagas disease but more investigations are necessary to elucidate if the physalin inhibits parasite development due to alterations in immune responses, or in the microbiota population or in both of them together. D.P.C. is a post-doctorate researcher with CAPES and FAPERJ (Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro) scholarship. This work was supported by grants from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) to E.S.G. and P.A., Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Papes project to P.A.). E.S.G. and P.A. are CNPq Senior Research MK-2206 chemical structure Fellows. “
“The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an emerging model for the study of the eco-physiology of egg diapause. It is a successful invasive species now present in all continents
excepted Antarctica ( Bonizzoni et al., 2013). It was first introduced in tropical countries around the 18th century, in water-stock of migrants’ ships, and a second wave of invasion NVP-BKM120 price is still ongoing in tropical areas ( Delatte et al., 2011). The colonization of temperate areas began in the middle of the 20th century, through used tire traffic by ships from Asian subtropical areas ( Kuno, 2012 and Urbanelli et al., 2000). As it is an effective vector for many arboviruses ( Gratz, 2004), this species represents a new public health threat for the US and Europe. Its role as the exclusive vector in epidemics in temperate areas has been proven for chikungunya and dengue fevers ( Rezza et al., 2007 and Vega-Rua et al., 2013). There is a remote risk that diapausing eggs will be infected by arboviruses
( Guo et al., 2007); this could lead to the persistence of arboviruses in mosquito Calpain populations in temperate countries. Diapause is an adaptation and a complex physiological process defined as “a form of dormancy that is hormonally programmed in advance of its onset and is not immediately terminated in response of favorable conditions” (Denlinger and Armbruster, 2014). Diapausing individuals are indeed usually more resistant to harsh environmental conditions than non-diapausing ones. Desiccation (Sota and Mogi, 1992a and Urbanski et al., 2010a) and cold resistance are generally enhanced during diapause (Hanson and Craig, 1995) and post-diapause (Thomas et al., 2012) as for A. albopictus eggs. Diapause also enhances nutritive resources ( Hahn and Denlinger, 2011), and even irradiation resistance ( Brower, 1980) in insects. Numerous examples show that the diapause status of the progeny is determined by the exposure of ovipositing females to short photoperiod ( Mousseau and Fox, 1998). The annual variation in day length is the most reliable indicator of seasonality in temperate areas.