7 ± 15 0 and 17 4 ± 8 0% respectively) The GFP+ fraction in the

7 ± 15.0 and 17.4 ± 8.0% respectively). The GFP+ fraction in the adjacent tissue of the skin was significantly larger than in the adjacent tissue of the mucoperiosteum (p = 0.004). The fraction of myofibroblasts (Fig. 3B) in the mucoperiosteal wounds (46.4 ± 23.8%) was

larger than in the adjacent tissue (0.69 ± 0.53%; p = 0.002) but also larger than in the skin wounds (7.3 ± 7.1%; p = 0.012). In contrast, the fraction of myofibroblasts in skin wounds and adjacent tissue was similar. The fraction of GFP-positive myofibroblasts ( Fig. 3C) in the mucoperiosteal wounds (4.6 ± 3.0%) was larger than in the adjacent tissue (0 ± 0%; p = 0.023), which was not the case in skin wounds and adjacent tissue. The fraction of activated fibroblasts (Fig. 3D) in the skin wounds (78.5 ± 4.7%) was slightly larger than in the PD173074 supplier adjacent tissue (64.6 ABT-737 nmr ±7.4%, p = 0.010). The slight difference in the mucoperiosteum was not significant. The fraction of GFP-positive activated fibroblasts tended to be larger in both types of wound tissues than in the adjacent tissues (

Fig. 3E). The fraction of macrophages (Fig. 3F) was not significantly different in all tissues. The mucoperiosteal adjacent tissue (7.5 ± 5.7%) and the skin adjacent tissue (16.1 ± 6.2%) contained similar numbers of macrophages. No significant differences were found in the fraction of GFP-positive macrophages (Fig. 3G). We hypothesized that more BMDCs are recruited to quickly healing tissues such as the oral mucosa than

to more slowly healing tissues such as the skin. This was based on earlier data obtained from regenerating endometrium of the human uterus where up to 48% of the epithelial cells are derived from the bone marrow.26 However, later it was shown in some mouse models that the contribution was far less.27 This is probably due to differences in the process of endometrial regeneration between humans and rodents. Previous studies indicate that about 14% of the cells in skin wounds in mice are derived from the bone marrow, and that this is increased by wounding.28 Our data show that about Edoxaban 8% of the cells in mucoperiosteal wounds is recruited from the bone marrow, which is about 10 times higher than in the normal adjacent tissue. In contrast, the recruitment of BMDCs to skin wounds and the adjacent normal tissue is comparable, but about twofold larger than in mucoperiosteal wounds. Moreover, the total population of BMDCs in normal skin is about 25 times larger than in normal mucoperiosteum. Our data indicate that, in the mucoperiosteum, BMDCs are preferentially recruited to the wound but not in the skin. Alternatively, BMDCs recruitment in skin wounds might have peaked earlier than two weeks after wounding as reported in a mouse model.28 The long-term contribution of BMDCs, however, was similar to our findings. In the light of tissue remodelling and scarring, this might be the more relevant population.

The Hsp90 machinery mediates the folding, maturation, activation,

The Hsp90 machinery mediates the folding, maturation, activation, and assembly of various proteins involved in signal transduction,

transcriptional regulation, and cell cycle control [1]. Many of these client proteins are oncogenic. Therefore, a great advantage of the use of Hsp90 inhibitors is that multiple key oncogenic proteins can be disrupted simultaneously [2]. The geldanamycin Selleckchem PLX4720 derivative 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), or tanespimycin, was the first Hsp90 inhibitor that entered clinical trials [3]. There are now about 14 inhibitors of Hsp90 function undergoing clinical trials, which belong to different structural classes [4]. All of them bind to a conserved pocket in the NH2-terminal ATP-binding domain of Hsp90, inhibiting its activity. Geldanamycin and its derivatives belong to the benzoquinone ansamycin class, which was found to inhibit expression of the oncogene c-myc [5] and to cause inactivation [6] and degradation of the tyrosine kinase src [7], human EGFR 2 (HER2)/Neu [8], raf

[9], and mutated p53 [10]. However, albeit most of phase I and phase II clinical trials with geldanamycin derivatives have already been completed or terminated due to clinical limitations, these drugs have proved the successful targeting of Hsp90, paving the way for the development of second-generation Hsp90 inhibitors [11], such as synthetic and small molecules, targeted also against the N-terminal ATP-binding site. One class of such small inhibitors is based on the pyrazole or resorcinol subunit, another class on the purine-scaffold, and lastly, novel Dorsomorphin nmr C-terminal domain–based Hsp90 inhibitors are being developed as well [12]. NVP-AUY922 is a novel resorcinylic isoxazole–based Hsp90 inhibitor that has shown potent preclinical activity in cancer models [13] and in xenografts [14]. In addition, it has

shown tolerability in a phase I clinical trial [15]. The Hsp90-client cycle involves the association and dissociation of several cochaperones and is driven by the ATP-binding state of Hsp90 [2]. Thus, Hsp90 participates in two multichaperoning complexes with opposing activities: ATP-bound (mature) and ADP-bound (intermediate). A client protein initially associates with Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase Hsp70/Hsp40 and is loaded onto Hsp90 through p60Hop, forming the ADP-bound intermediate state. When ADP is transformed into ATP, the Hsp90 complex conformation is altered, releasing Hsp70/Hsp40 and p60Hop, allowing other cochaperones such as p23, p50cdc37, and immunophilins to bind Hsp90, forming the mature complex. Then, at this stage, Hsp90-bound ATP is hydrolyzed, and the energy released enables client protein folding. Hsp90 inhibitors such as 17-AAG inhibit the ATPase intrinsic activity of Hsp90, impeding the chaperone to achieve the mature state [16].

54, p =  003) Scores on the TASIT were found to be significantly

54, p = .003). Scores on the TASIT were found to be significantly selectively correlated Tanespimycin in vivo with performance on the mentalising task, (rho = .55, p = .002) though not the non-mentalising task (rho = .34, p = .067). In addition, scores on the selected CBI item (‘Appears indifferent to the worries and concerns of family members’) were significantly negatively correlated with performance on the mentalising task (rho = −.6, p = .03), but not the non-mentalising task (rho = −.1, p = .67). There were no correlations of performance on either experimental task with executive function, single-word comprehension, clinical disease duration, years of education, or premorbid

intelligence estimates. Only two control subjects reported prior familiarity with over half the musical examples used; most participants reported no prior familiarity buy Trametinib with the musical examples. Accordingly we did not perform a formal regression analysis of

performance on prior musical familiarity. However, a separate analysis excluding the two control subjects who reported higher prior familiarity with the musical examples yielded identical results with respect to the experimental tasks. ROC curves based on each of the experimental tasks discriminated between bvFTD patients and healthy controls (Fig. 2). No significant AUC difference was found between the mentalising and non-mentalising tasks, however mentalising task performance showed a trend towards greater sensitivity and specificity (AUC coefficient .88 [95% confidence interval (CI): .73,

.95]) compared with the non-mentalising task (AUC coefficient .73 [95% CI: .57, .90]). Further binomial breakdown of the AUCs revealed that a cut-point raw score of 15 on the mentalising task correctly classified 85% of participants as being either a patient or a control, whereas this was reduced to 71% for the non-mentalising task using the same cut-point value. Examining individual subject performance profiles (Fig. 3), five patients showed a clear (>four point) discrepancy in favour of superior performance on the non-mentalising task. However, two patients showed the reverse pattern, with superior performance on the mentalising task. No similarly Protirelin marked discrepancies were seen for individuals in the healthy control group (Fig. 3). SPMs of grey matter volume associated with performance in the mentalising and non-mentalising conditions are shown in Fig. 4; data for local maxima of grey matter change are summarised in Table 2. When assessed separately, performance on the mentalising task was positively associated with grey matter volume in right entorhinal cortex (p < .05 after FWE correction for multiple comparisons within the anatomical small volume of interest). No significant negative inverse associations between performance and grey matter volume were identified.

, 2004a,b) He was also groundbreaking in his works on the role o

, 2004a,b). He was also groundbreaking in his works on the role of “thermal hysteresis factors” (antifreeze proteins) in insects (e.g. Zachariassen and Husby, 1982) and lastly was deeply involved in the characterization of the very potent antifreeze proteins of Rhagium inquisitor (Kristiansen et al., 2011). In 1985 he published his review on Physiology of Cold Tolerance in Insects (cited almost 400 times), which is still one of the best and most pedagogic works on the topic. Zachariassen spent long periods in Kenya see more and was very interested in the desiccation resistance (and tolerance)

of desert beetles. He proposed the “Water conserving physiological compromise of desert insects” (see paper by Chown et al. in this special issue), which has served as inspiration and a topic of debate among colleagues. Zachariassen was first of all driven by an enormous curiosity and this, combined Idelalisib with an unusually open mind and a very persistent ability to look at things from a different perspective, thinking “out of the box” made him not only a very innovative and imaginative scientist but also a pain to everyone defending increased administration and more control

of the scientists at the university. Time after time he emphasized that he was Professor of Physiology (“Appointed by the King”), actually the last professor to be so, and he felt this gave him an important obligation not only to keep the scientific level of physiology at it highest but also the academic discussion “per se” at its highest. Zachariassen was very old school when it came to science; understood the way that he perceived universities as the institutions where the thoughts are free and where basic science is performed

without any reason other than curiosity, and thus the universities are culture-generating and culture-bearing institutions. Zachariassen of course also turned some of his research in the direction of the money as funding was more and more directed towards applied research and less and less given to basic research. This was by no means something he liked, but he also realized that without doing so financial sources would sooner or later run dry. In pursuing these, in many ways Succinyl-CoA more mundane, questions he nevertheless continued to perform very good and innovative science, always with quality and interesting angles on the subjects in view. Zachariassen was not only interested in physiology during the whole course of his career, he was also a very keen “amateur” coleopterist. He knew the Norwegian beetle fauna as the inside of his pocket and he described a number of species not previously known in Norway. Zachariassen collected beetles everywhere he went and was always carrying small boxes for beetles or match boxes with beetles.

Kennedy et al (2012) reports on the routine monitoring of pestic

Kennedy et al. (2012) reports on the routine monitoring of pesticides using passive sampling techniques. Pesticides have been detected along most of the inshore GBR, including the relatively pristine Cape York Region, and are reported using a PSII herbicide equivalent (PSII-HEq) index. This paper also presents a novel method

of predicting PSII herbicides from remotely sensed CDOM, providing CH5424802 mw a cost effective monitoring tool for PSII herbicides. Coral cores have been widely used to detect historical trends of pollution (e.g., McCulloch et al., 2003). Lewis et al. (2012b) continues this work by correlating present day water quality gradients with changing land use in the adjacent river catchments using trace element ratios. This work highlights the importance of site selection when using coral records to record regional environmental signals as the various ratios tested provided different environmental Bortezomib response. Fabricius et al. (2012) investigate the responses of bioindicators on inshore coral reefs of the GBR. Changes in water quality were correlated with shifts from phototrophic to heterotrophic benthic communities, and from diverse coral-dominated communities to low-diversity communities dominated by macroalgae.

Turbidity was the best predictor of biota and remains an essential parameter to monitor water quality on the GBR. Cooper and Fabricius (2012) explored the photo-acclimatisation of algal endosymbionts of scleractinian corals as a bioindicator for water quality. Changes in environmental conditions resulted in massive Porites corals becoming progressively brighter as nutrients decreased and irradiance Vildagliptin increased along a water quality gradient and suggests that coral brightness may be a simple tool to monitor changes in marine water quality. Reponses of coastal seagrasses to light limitation, e.g., due to increased turbidity, were examined at the metabolic and physiological level and showed that efforts to improve

water quality will likely be effective in improving seagrass condition ( Collier et al., 2012). A number of papers describe experimental studies of the effects of herbicides on a variety of marine micro-organisms. Shaw et al. (2012) examined the response of zooxanthellae isolated from corals to herbicides collected in a flood plume. The photosynthetic potential of the zooxanthellae declined after exposure to herbicides and was positively related to the concentration of diuron and negatively related to salinity. Magnusson et al. (2012) reports the first identification of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) in tropical estuarine microbial biofilms in response to chronic low-level herbicide exposures. The biofilms show a shift in species composition towards communities dominated by diatoms in response to herbicide exposure.

The training protocol was started at this time to evaluate the ro

The training protocol was started at this time to evaluate the role of physical training in reversing or decreasing the harmful effects of the estrogen deficiency.

Exercise training was performed in a swimming pool (180 cm × 70 cm × 60 cm) filled with tap water warmed to approximately 30–32 °C at the same time of day (14:00–16:00 pm) in all training sessions during 8 weeks. The exercise intensity was progressively increased over the first two weeks. BEZ235 order In the first day, the rats swam for 10 min, and swim time was increased until the rats were swimming for thirty minutes on the fifth day. In the second week, the swim time was increased each day until the animals could swim for 60 min while wearing a caudal dumbbell, weighing 5% of their body weight (overload) [43]. This protocol has previously been characterized as low to moderate intensity (with a long duration) based on improvements in muscle oxidative capacity [33]. The coronary function of rats was evaluated using the Langendorff preparation (Hugo Sachs Electronics™, March-Hugstetten, Germany). Forty-eight hours after the last exercise session, the animals were killed

by decapitation. After decapitation, their thorax was opened and the hearts were rapidly excised and placed in ice-cold modified Krebs buffer. The aorta was immediately cannulated with a 21 G needle and perfused with a modified Krebs buffer (composed of 120 mM NaCl, 1.26 mM CaCl2·2H2O, 5.4 mM KCl, 2.5 mM MgSO4·7H2O, 2 mM NaH2PO4·H2O, Farnesyltransferase selleck screening library 27 mM NaHCO3, 1.2 mM Na2SO4, 0.03 mM EDTA, and 11 mM glucose). The Krebs buffer was equilibrated with a carbogen mixture (O2

95% + CO2 5%, White-Martins Ind., RJ, Brazil) at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg to give a pH of 7.4 and kept at 37 °C. The perfusion flow was maintained at a rate of 10 mL/min by a peristaltic pump (MS-Reglo 4-channel, Hugo Sachs Electronics™), according to the Langendorff methods [35] and [47]. After a small surgical incision in the left atrium, isovolumetric cardiac pressure was recorded with a water-filled latex balloon (Durex, London, UK) inserted into the left ventricle (LV) through a steel catheter connected to a transducer (TPS-2 Statham transducer – Incor, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil). The LV end-diastolic pressure was set at 8–10 mmHg by adjusting the balloon volume through a spindle syringe. The coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and intrinsic heart rate (IHR) were continuously recorded with a sidearm of the aortic cannula with a pressure transducer (P23Db Statham transducer – Incor, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil) connected to data acquisition system (PowerLab™, ADI Instruments, Bela Vista, NSW, Australia). After a stabilization period of 40 min, baseline values of CPP and IHR were determined. Then, the responsiveness of the coronary vascular bed was evaluated. A bolus injection (100 μl) of modified Krebs’s buffer was applied to determine volume-injection-induced changes in CPP and IHR.

“Increasing energy security

“Increasing energy security Decitabine solubility dmso and mitigating climate change are the two main motives that have pushed renewable energy production to the top of global agendas [1]. They are encouraging the agronomic production of biomass to help meet renewable bioenergy needs. Perennial grasses are attractive as biomass sources, as they can meet the agronomic, environmental and social requirements for successful deployment as energy crops. Perennial rhizomatous grass is an ideal biofuel crop, because it displays the agronomically desirable traits of broad climatic

tolerance, rapid growth rates, and relatively high yield. Furthermore, owing to the recycling of nutrients by their rhizome systems, perennial grasses have a low nutrient demand [2]. They are also seldom attacked by pests and so can be produced with few or no pesticides [3]. Given these unique advantages, the interest in using biofuel crops for energy production is soaring. However, because China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands [4], biofuel cultivation, to be competitive with conventional energy sources and avoid the supplantation of food crops, will likely be relegated to less productive soils and will receive

minimal inputs of water, fertilizer, and pesticides [5]. Thus, RO4929097 purchase marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. It is estimated that the quantity of marginal land that could be used in biofuel production in China is near 110 million ha, of which about 45 million ha would support economic operation [4]. Abiotic stresses including lack of nutrients, drought, and high salt levels in these areas are common factors that will limit the production of biofuel crops. Under environmental stress such as nitrogen (N) deficiency, which will be a major limiting factor to cultivating biofuel crops in northwestern and northern China, plants show varying adaptations at the morphological,

for biochemical, molecular and physiological levels. It is imperative to increase our knowledge on the tolerance of biofuel crops to diverse nutrient deficiency conditions to allow continuous biomass industrialization on marginal lands. Efficient production of bioenergy from such marginal lands requires the choice of the most stress-tolerant grass species. Biofuel crops are being screened for superior characteristics or bred and genetically modified for enhanced abiotic stress tolerance traits that will expand their cultivable area [6]. It is accordingly desirable to evaluate the responses of promising biofuel crops to N-deficiency stress and identify cultivars that are most suitable for biomass production under N-deficiency conditions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season rhizomatous perennial C4 grass that originated in the North American tall grass prairie.

Due to the hepatocarcinogenic property of both AFB1 and ST, the h

Due to the hepatocarcinogenic property of both AFB1 and ST, the human hepatoma HepG2 cell was used as the cell model to investigate their co-proapoptotic activity and related mechanisms, and it is expected that the basic toxicity property

and mechanism obtained from a model system might facilitate developing interventive measures to reduce their vivo toxicity to the body. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells lines were obtained Compound C price from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Beijing, China). AFB1(purity ≥98%), ST (purity ≥98%), DMSO, Sulforhodamine B (SRB), TCA, H33258, DCFH-DA, DCF, rhodamine 123, JC-1 dye, and calf thymus DNA were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Shanghai, China). Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), fetal bovine serum (FBS), trypsin, HBSS, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were purchased from Gibco Life Technologies (Shanghai, China). ATP assay kit, Annexin V-FITC cell apoptosis assay kit, and mitochondria membrane potential assay kit were obtained from Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology (Shanghai, China). DAB was purchased from Genetech Inc (Shanghai, China). All the antibodies for Caspase-3, p53, Bax and Bcl-2 were from Germany AbioB, LTM.(Shanghai, China). HepG2 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing FBS (10%), penicillin (100 units/ml) and streptomycin (100 μg/mL) under a U0126 in vivo humidified incubator

with CO2 (5%) and air (95%) at 37 °C. Every 5–7 days, the adherent cells were suspended after treatment with 1 mL of 0.25% trypsin-EDTA solution for 2-3 min at 37 °C, and then were subcultured at a 1:3 split ratio. The culture medium was changed every 2 days. Stocks of cells were routinely frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen. Cells with 15-20 passages were used for experiments to ensure cell line stability. The cell viability was measured by a sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay (SRB) [22]. Briefly, log phase HepG2 cells (200 μL) were seeded at a density of 3 × 104 cells/mL in a 96-well plate. After incubation for 24 h, culture medium

containing AFB1 or ST (dissolved in DMSO) was used to treat the cells for 24 or 48 h. Then, the cells were fixed by adding 100 μL cold (4 °C) trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution (10% w/v) and incubated ID-8 at 4 °C for 1 h, and then gently washed with deionized water 4-5 times. After the plate was air-dried, 100 μL SRB reagent (4 g/L) was added and incubated at room temperature for 30 min, then the plate was washed with 1% acetic acid 4-5 times and air-dried. The OD reading at 490 nm was carried out by adding 200 μL 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) to each well. Cell growth inhibition rate in percentage was calculated by comparing with the control sample (without AFB1 and ST treatment). HepG2 cells were seeded at a density of 5 × 104 cells/mL in a 96-well plate.

Dr Jaime Aparecido Cury for suggestions made to the manuscript (

Dr. Jaime Aparecido Cury for suggestions made to the manuscript (both from the Department of Biochemistry, FOP/UNICAMP). Ethical approval: This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for the Use of Animals in

Research of the University of Sao Paulo (campus of Ribeirao Preto) (protocol 07.1.346.53.3). Funding: FAPESP (State of Sao Paulo Research Funding Agency) and CNPQ (National Council of Scientific and Technological Development, Ministry of Science and Technology, Brazil). Conflict of interest: There are no conflicts of interest in this study. “
“During the embryonic developmental stage, epithelial–mesenchymal interactions determine SCH772984 molecular weight the formation of all the dental components, including the pulp.1 The pulp is divided into four layers: the external layer is constituted by odontoblasts which produce the dentine. The dentine keeps and protects the inner dental pulp chamber, comprised by the second layer, a zone poor in cells and rich in extracellular matrix, and the third layer containing compact connective tissue. The last layer is infiltrated by a vascular area and a nervous plexus.2 and 3 The presence of undifferentiated cells around the vessels, responsible for the new dentine formation after dental injuries such as cavities or mechanical trauma, has highlighted the dental pulp as a source of mesenchymal stem cells.1 and 2 Of particular Talazoparib cell line interest is the fact that rodent incisors grow continually,

unlike rodent molars and human teeth. The apical part is responsible for the enamel matrix production. This area contains epithelial stem cells that originate the ameloblasts, stratum intermedium, stellate reticulum and outer dental epithelium layers.4 The first identification and isolation of precursors of functional odontoblasts known as human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) was reported in by Gronthos et al.5 These cells were characterized by their highly proliferative capacity, the typical fibroblast-like morphology, multipotent differentiation, the expression of mesenchymal stem cells markers Phospholipase D1 in vitro, as well as by dentine regeneration induction in vivo.

6 Several other populations of human dental stem cells have been characterized, such as stem cells obtained from deciduous teeth, 6 and 7 apical papilla, 8 and periodontal ligament stem cells. 9 and 10 Cell populations obtained from rat dental pulp contain STRO-1 positive cells with multilineage potential of differentiation in vitro. 11 A recent study demonstrated that erupted murine molars contain a population of multipotent cells with osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation abilities. 12 Other reports have described the gene expression pattern associated with the regulation of the tooth germ morphogenesis in the mouse incisor. 13 and 14 A study performed by Balic and Mina34 provided evidence that dental pulp tissue obtained from unerupted and erupted murine incisors contains a progenitor, but not a multipotent mesenchymal stem cell population.

The values of aw(λ) and bw(λ) representing pure water were taken

The values of aw(λ) and bw(λ) representing pure water were taken from Pope & Fry (1997), Sogandares & Fry (1997), Smith & Baker (1981) and Morel (1974). The backscattering coefficients of water bb(λ) were obtained as a result of the spectral inter- and extrapolation of values measured with the HydroScat-4 instrument. The Fournier-Forand scattering phase functions were also used in the modelling ( Fournier & Forand (1994)), and these functions were selected on the basis of the ratio

of bb(λ)/b(λ). For simplification, Pictilisib manufacturer the sea surface state was modelled with an assumed low wind speed of 1 m s− 1. Clear sky model conditions and a constant solar zenith angle of 30° were also assumed for all cases. With all these assumptions the remote-sensing reflectances just above the sea surface Rrs(λ) were then modelled for all 83 cases within the spectral range from 400 to 750 nm and with a spectral resolution of 5 nm. However, of these modelled (synthetic) spectra only the values of Rrs(λ) at five bands (445, 490, 555, 645 CAL-101 mouse and 665 nm) were chosen for further examination (by way of example). The reader should note at this point that the selection of these

spectral bands should be treated purely as a demonstration: they are intended to represent in a PR-171 molecular weight simplified manner

different parts of the visible light spectrum (445 and 490 nm bands represent the indigo/blue region, 555 nm the green region, and 645 and 665 nm the red region). This selection was performed in consideration of the existing spectral bands of the MODIS Aqua instrument currently used by the oceanographic community (note that the so-called level 2 products from that satellite sensor include values of Rrs(λ) at 443, 488, 555, 645 and 667 nm; see e.g. the documentation available at http:/oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov). At the same time, when choosing Rrs spectral bands for further analyses, it was also important to choose them relatively close to the bands present in the input data for radiative transfer modelling, especially close to the bands of coefficient an (we recall that the closest an coefficient input bands were 440, 488, 555, 650 and 676 nm). As in the case of the empirical formulas described earlier, statistical analyses of the combined empirical and modelled material were performed. The best-fit power functions representing the relationships between the biogeochemical properties of suspended matter and the remote-sensing reflectances at chosen wavelengths or reflectance ratios were found.