g. whether nanoparticles remain internalised or readily ‘escape’) it is important to understand the relationship between the production technique and the structure of the resulting product. The aim of the work described in this paper was to explore the production of NIMs using
a method based on traditional ‘double emulsion’ techniques that are conventionally employed to make drug-loaded microparticles. The distribution of nanoparticles within CHIR-99021 datasheet the resulting NIM formulations was investigated, drawing on evidence from imaging of the emulsion systems and the final particle products and also Modulators through characterisation of drug loading/release profiles. As stated earlier, NIMs have the broad range of potential pharmaceutical uses. In this work, we had the application of chemoembolisation http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Everolimus(RAD001).html in mind, where the inner nanoparticles are drug delivery vehicles and the outer microparticles act as embolisation agents for cutting off the blood supply to tumours. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), hydrocortisone acetate (HA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), SPAN 80 and Nile red were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich, UK. 50:50 poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), isomeric poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(dl-lactic acid) (PDLA)
were purchased from SurModic Pharmaceutical Inc., USA. Dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), acetonitrile (MeCN), acetone, fluorescein, sodium acetate (NaOAc), sodium chloride, citric acid, sodium hydroxide and acetic acid glacial were purchased from Fisher Scientific, UK. PCL nanoparticles loaded with HA were prepared
for the study as follows: A solution of PCL in acetone (1% w/w) was prepared to which HA was added, producing a drug-to-polymer mass ratio of 1:2. 5 mL of the drug/polymer solution was then emulsified in 200 mL of 1% w/w PVA solution. The stirring was continued for 4 h for the particles to solidify. After that, the particles Tryptophan synthase were collected by centrifugation, and the supernatant decanted off. Before the resultant nanoparticles (N) were further used in the production of NIMs, they were either resuspended in 1 mL of 1% PVA solution to produce a slurry of wet nanoparticles (Nslurry), or oven-dried at 40 °C to produce dry nanoparticles (Ndried). For visualisation studies, Nile red was used in the place of HA. Two formulations were produced; NIMs formulated either with the oven-dried nanoparticles (NIMdried) or with the wet slurry nanoparticles (NIMslurry). For the NIMdried formulation, 40 mg of Ndried was homogenised in 0.5 mL of 1% w/w PVA solution ([w1]), and then homogenised (IKA Ultra-Turrax® T25 Digital homogeniser, Janke & Kunkel GMBH & Co. KG., Germany) in 3 mL of 1% w/w 50:50 PLGA solution dissolved in EA (i.e. [o]) with 0.02 g of SPAN 80. The [Ndried/w1/o] primary emulsion was then added dropwise to 200 mL of 0.5% w/w PVA solution (i.e. [w2]) under continuous magnetic stirring to form the double emulsion.