These data have been difficult to disentangle because of the impe

These data have been difficult to disentangle because of the imperfect correction for body size afforded by DXA, and the existence of few data from the use of pQCT. In this study we therefore aimed to evaluate the relationship between

fat mass and bone size and volumetric density among pre-pubertal children within a narrow age range, recruited from a free-living population cohort, the Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS) and who had undergone assessment with DXA and pQCT. The Southampton Women’s Survey is a prospective cohort study of 12,583 women aged 20–34 years recruited from the general population [11]. At enrolment the participants were characterised in detail in terms of diet, lifestyle, health, physical activity and anthropometric measurements. 3159 of these women were followed through a subsequent pregnancy and delivered a live born infant. The children are Enzalutamide solubility dmso being followed and characterised at regular intervals. Of the 1268 eligible families contacted during the study period for a 6 year follow up 530 attended for DXA, forming the cohort presented in this paper. The mother and child were invited to visit the Osteoporosis Centre at Southampton General Hospital for assessment of bone mass and body composition. At this visit written informed consent for the DXA scan was obtained from the mother or father. The child’s height (using a Leicester height measurer,

Seca Ltd, UK) and weight, using calibrated digital scales (Seca Ltd, UK) were measured. Whole body (including body composition) and lumbar spine scans were obtained, using a Hologic Discovery instrument (Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA). To encourage compliance, a suitably bright sheet with appropriate pictures was laid on the couch and to help reduce movement artefact, the children were shown a suitable DVD. The total radiation

dose for the scans were as followed: whole body (paediatric scan mode) 4.7 μSv, Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II spine (L1–L4) 1.5 μSv and hip 7.3 μSv. The manufacturer’s coefficient of variation (CV) for the instrument was 0.75% for whole body bone mineral density, and the experimental CV when a spine phantom was repeatedly scanned in the same position 16 times was 0.68%. All scans were checked for movement and clothing artefact resulting in 499 suitable for analysis. A consecutive subgroup of 172 children was invited back to the Osteoporosis Centre to have an additional assessment of bone mass using a pQCT peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanner (Stratec XCT 2000, Software version 6.00 B 00.61, threshold for cortical bone 710 mg/cm3, Stratec Biomedical Systems, Birkenfeld, Germany) following the DXA visit. After written informed consent was obtained the child’s lower leg length was measured from the medial malleolus to the tibial tuberosity in order to demarcate the correct scan position.

0% CMC Genomic DNA of the isolate was extracted by the modified

0% CMC. Genomic DNA of the isolate was extracted by the modified protocol described

by Sharma and Singh [12] and the modified step in the protocol was the resuspension of cell pellets in 100 μL sucrose TE buffer (25 mM Tris, pH 8.0; 10 mM EDTA, pH 8.0 and 300 mM sucrose) containing 2.0 mg mL−1 lysozyme and the suspension was incubated at 37 °C for 15 min. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR as described by Solomon et al. [13] using 16S rRNA gene specific 27F and 1492 universal primers. The amplified product was purified by QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instruction, cloned into pGEM-T easy vector (Promega, USA) and confirmed positive clone was sequenced by Applied Biosystems check details 3730XL DNA analyzer with the sequencing reaction components derived from BigDye Terminator v3.1 cycle sequencing kit (Applied Biosystems, USA). Quality of the 16S rRNA gene sequence was analyzed by Pintail ( The phylogenetic analysis was performed by BLAST, Ribosomal Database Project-II (RDP-II)

database [14] by Neighbor Joining method and Maximum-likelihood analysis was performed with DNAML of PHYLIP 3.68 [15]. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using PHYLIP 3.68 with DNADIST, NEIGHBOR using bootstrapping over 1000 replicates and viewed with the help of Treeview [16]. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the cellulolytic bacterial isolate JS-C42 was deposited in GenBank under the accession Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase number KC987474. The protein extracted from culture filtrate of JS-C42 isolate was concentrated by ammonium sulphate precipitation, BMS-354825 molecular weight desalted by dialysis

in 50 mM citrate buffer, pH 4.8 and assayed for the filter paper unit (FPU) activity, exo-β-glucanase, endo-β-1,4-glucanase, cellobiohydrolase, xylanase, β-glucosidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP) using the substrates Whatman No. 1 filter paper (1 cm × 6 cm, 50 mg) strips, Avicel, carboxymethyl cellulose, cellobiose, xylan from beach wood, P-nitrophenyl β-d-glucopyranoside and veratryl alcohol respectively. The protein concentration of the enzyme extract was determined using Quick Start™ Bradford protein assay kit (Bio-Rad, CA, USA) and the enzyme assays were performed in by following the standard methods [17], [18], [19] and [20]. The paddy straw, sorghum stubbles, leaves of A. mangium and F. religiosa were chopped into small pieces, powdered and sieved through 1.0 mm mesh sieves. The ground, sieved plant biomass substrate was pretreated by the steam explosion as described by Sharma et al. [21] by releasing rapid discharge of high-pressure steam to a vessel operated at lower pressure. The exploded biomass substrates were immediately used in the enzymatic saccharification experiment. The JS-C42 isolate was grown on pretreated paddy straw (1.0%, w/v), paddy straw with glucose (1.0% and 0.03%), leaves of A. mangium and F.

Regardless of which approach is taken, authors will need to expla

Regardless of which approach is taken, authors will need to explain the experimental designs and thus motivating

the statistical analyses carefully and unambiguously so they can be reproduced by others. Also, the results should include the estimated standard deviations for the random effects and residual errors as it may be valuable information for planning future experiments to know how the total variation is divided in between- and within-experiment FK866 variation. Analysing data from experiments replicated at different points in time without incorporating time is not an acceptable approach, as variation over time is discarded and, consequently, confidence intervals and p-values may become misleading, e.g., the former too narrow and the latter too small. Design consideration: With quantitative independent

variables, regression models often offer more flexibility compared with analysis of variance models. The former allows choosing different ranges of the quantitative independent variable in experiments at different points in time and still obtain the same parameters. For example, the slope in a linear regression model may be estimated using arbitrary sets of x values, which may be chosen adaptively for the points in time considered (e.g., based on the previous experiments). “
“Event Date and Venue Details from *14th INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS, Rhodes Is., GREECE 06–10 July Contact: Email [email protected] *8th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CHEMICAL AND NON-CHEMICAL SOIL AND SUBSTRATE DISINFESTATION, Torino, ITALY 13–18 July Contact see: *INTERNATIONAL UNION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES selleckchem CONGRESSES Celecoxib 27 July–01 AugustMontreal, QUE, CANADA Contact see: * 10th INTERNATIONAL MYCOLOGICAL CONGRESS 03–08 August Bangkok, THAILAND Contact: L. Manoch. Email [email protected] Full-size table

Table options View in workspace Download as CSV “
“The NS3/4A protease inhibitor telaprevir (TVR), in combination with peginterferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2a and ribavirin (RBV), is approved at a dose of 750 mg every 8 hours for the treatment of genotype 1 (G1) chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults with compensated liver disease who are treatment naive or have previously received interferon-based treatment.1 and 2 Reducing the frequency of TVR dosing to twice daily to coincide with RBV dosing and to allow for easier coordination with mealtimes (to optimize absorption) may be beneficial for patient adherence and treatment success. Twice-daily dosing of TVR was previously explored in the phase 2 C208 clinical study (NCT00528528), which evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of 12 weeks of treatment with TVR 1125 mg every 12 hours or TVR 750 mg every 8 hours in combination with a maximum of 48 weeks of treatment with PEG-IFN alfa-2a/RBV or PEG-IFN alfa-2b/RBV in 161 treatment-naive, predominantly noncirrhotic patients.

Healthy eating recommendations call for decreased consumption of

Healthy eating recommendations call for decreased consumption of meat, Stem Cell Compound Library price meat products and highly processed foods. Reduction of meat consumption is at the same time among the most effective measures to reduce the resource intensity of one’s diet 14••, 36, 37•• and 38. While meat intake should be decreased, healthy eating recommendations indicate most consumers should increase the intake of fruit and vegetable. These, just as many other plant-based

products, have a much lower relative environmental impact upon production than animal-based food categories [36]. It has been found that the concern about ‘food miles’ is overrating the relative environmental impact of transportation: for most foods, the share of transportation is dwarfed by the crucial impact of the production stage [24], unless, however, transportation is via air [37••]. Furthermore, using less highly processed foods in the diet should, apart from being healthier, also be relatively more environmentally

friendly due to lower energy use [36] and possibly less package material needed. Furthermore, eating less and eating just the right amount is both healthier and most resource-efficient. It would mean the foods are used most effectively, and there is no wastage of resources incurred by measures Alectinib nmr to reduce or offset the negative effects of obesity in, for example, increased public health efforts. Even when more packaging material is needed in order to provide smaller units, the type of material chosen or the choice of reuse systems can avoid an increase in packaging waste

[22]. Thus, it has been suggested that considering environmental and health aspects of diets is of ‘no apparent contradiction’ [36]. Organic food is among the food types suggested to choose when it comes to relatively more sustainable food choices [37••], with the FAO having acknowledged its potential contribution to sustainable agricultural systems already in 1999 [39]. According to the organic principles defined by the sector [40], ‘health’ is an integral goal the of organic farming systems — a fact that is not to the same extent noticeable in the regulations and certification systems, given it is process standards that cannot ensure certain product characteristics to materialise at the end of the process, as is the goal in functional food [20]. Nevertheless, it is repeatedly found that an improved health quality is what consumers expect of organic food [39]. Thus, their choice, even when greatly motivated by health concerns, ought to have a positive impact on sustainability.

Accidental spills of oil and chemicals

can arise during o

Accidental spills of oil and chemicals

can arise during operation. In 2012 totally 122 small incidents were reported with a total oil discharge of 16 m3. Acute spills of chemicals have been stable at 100–150 incidents per year on the Epigenetic inhibitor cost NCS over the past decade (Norwegian Oil and Gas, 2013). Large chemical spills in 2007, 2009 and 2010 came from leakages from injection wells. No leakage has occurred after that due to technical improvements (Norwegian Oil and Gas, 2013). Until the mid 1990s the discharge of cuttings with oil based drilling mud (OBM cuttings) was the main source of oil hydrocarbons entering the marine environment from the offshore petroleum industry in the NS. The average annual discharge of oil on cuttings to the NCS for the period 1981–1986 was 1940 tons (Reiersen et al., 1989). This source was gradually eliminated by regulation, in 1993 in Norway and in 1996 and 2000 within the OSPAR region (OSPAR Commission, 2000). Concurrently oil discharged with PW on the NCS has increased and amounted to 1535 tons in 2012 (Norwegian Oil and Gas, 2013) i.e. almost at level with the former peak discharges of oil on cuttings. This is primarily due to an increase in overall PW volumes due to well ageing and rising number of producing fields.

One of the main objectives of environmental monitoring is to assess if discharge regulations are sufficiently protective. The history of sediment monitoring on the NCS has demonstrated that detection of unexpected ecological effects alone has led to stricter discharge legislation. The most conspicuous Obeticholic Acid ic50 example is the identification in the early 1990′s of much larger areas with fauna

effects from OBM cuttings discharges than previously known (Gray et al., 1990), leading to the prohibition of such discharges by OSPAR in 1996 (Gray et al., 1999). Extensive experimental and field studies have later been made to assess the ecological effects of the discharges. This review summarizes the findings Niclosamide of a large, Norwegian research program1 which combines experimental research and in situ monitoring on the NCS to address the likelihood of population and ecosystem effects from operational discharges of PW and drill cuttings. The concern and focus of the program is very much on PW since the potential environmental effects are less clearly understood than for drilling waste. PW is water from the formation produced along with oil or gas. It may sometimes also contain injection water and condensation water. The composition and characteristics of naturally-occurring chemical substances in PW are closely coupled to the geological characteristics of each reservoir. The composition of PW is complex and can comprise several thousand compounds that vary in concentration between wells and over the lifetime of a well.

Any significant effects were then followed up with post hoc t-tes

Any significant effects were then followed up with post hoc t-tests where appropriate. Analysis of sensitivity data demonstrated a significant Task × Ear interaction [F  (1, 130) = 249.16, p   < .001, ηp2 = .657]. A partial eta squared ( ηp2) of .657 indicated that the strength of this relation was large based on Cohen’s

(1988) recommendation that small, medium, and large effects are reported as .01, .06, and .14, respectively. The interaction itself showed that participants performed better when words were delivered to the right ear rather than to the left as depicted in Fig. 1 and confirmed by post hoc tests [t  (132) = −10.21, p   < .001, ηp2 = .443]. t  -tests also revealed that participants were more accurate in detecting emotions that were delivered to their left, rather than to their right ear [t  (132) = 8.07, p   < .001, ηp2 = .332]. Task × Ear × SPQ EX-527 did not approach significance, indicating that this typical pattern of laterality was observed across both schizotypy groups [F  (1, 130) = .08, p   > .05, ηp2 = .001, see Table 2]. A significant main effect of SPQ [F  (1, 130) = 8.05, p   = .005, ηp2 = .058] indicated that discrimination differences exist between the two groups. The low schizotypy group demonstrated higher sensitivity in detecting targets overall [M   = 2.15, SD   = .631]

Belinostat clinical trial compared to the high schizotypy group [M   = 1.93, SD   = .615]. Thus, although the high schizotypal

personality group displayed typical laterality patterns, its discrimination ability was reduced in relation to the low group. A significant Task × SPQ interaction [F  (1, 130) = 4.19, p   = .043, ηp2 = .031] revealed that the low schizotypy group had better discrimination on the ‘emotion’ task than the high schizotypy group [t  (130) = 2.85, p   = .005, ηp2 = .059] (see Fig. 2). The partial eta squared reinforces that the magnitude of the difference in mean scores between the groups was small to moderate. In contrast, no significant differences were found between the groups in the ability to accurately detect word targets [t  (130) = 1.22, p   > .05, ηp2 = .011]. The low schizotypal personality group also demonstrated more accurate discrimination for ‘emotion’ targets than Demeclocycline ‘word’ targets [t  (67) = −2.66, p   = .010, ηp2 = .095], whereas the high schizotypy group showed no differences on the performance of these tasks [t  (63) = .418, p   > .05, ηp2 = .002]. The analysis of mean reaction time mirrored the significant Task × Ear interaction and the large magnitude of effects [F  (1, 130) = 62.38, p   < .001, ηp2 = .324] that were observed in the accuracy data (see Fig. 3). Specifically, reaction times were faster for word targets presented to the right ear [t  (131) = 5.47, p   < .001, ηp2 = .186], and for emotion targets presented to the left ear [t  (131) = −4.58, p   < .001, ηp2 = .138].

The OTSC device has successfully secured FCSEMS in place in all 3

The OTSC device has successfully secured FCSEMS in place in all 3 patients for a median dwell time of 6 weeks. There click here have been no adverse events at placement (3/3) or removal (1/1) of the OTSC device. The OTSC device is pending removal in 2 patients. We therefore conclude that the OTSC device can be used to secure FCSEMS and prevent migration. Using APC to cut the joint of the OTSC device, removal is feasible. However, larger case series are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of this technique to preclude prosthesis migration. “
“Bleeding is a potentially

life-threatening AE that can occur at/after drainage of a pancreatic fluid collection (PFC). Traditionally, after failed endoscopic attempt at hemostasis (balloon-tamponade and cautery), angiographic embolization, and finally surgery have been the next and last resort, respectively, for treatment. We describe our outcomes at endoscopic management of 12 patients from 6/2010 to 6/2012 with severe bleeding at/after drainage of PFC. Twelve patients (8 males, median age 55) underwent endoscopic treatment of severe bleeding encountered at/after (11/1) drainage of symptomatic PFC (7 WON, 5 pseudocysts). Route of puncture was

transgastric in 9 and transduodenal in 3 patients.Suspected source of bleeding was arterial in 8 patients and variceal in 4 patients occuring at needle-knife puncture in 7, balloon dilation in 4, and at a tube check in 1 patient. Balloon tamponade and cautery were attempted in 11/12 patients and SB431542 manufacturer successful in 5/11 (45%) patients.

Self-expandable covered metal stents were used successfully in 2/2 (100%) patients. EUS guided or direct endoscopic cyanoacrylate was used successfully in 4/5 (80%) patients [total endoscopic success 11/12 (92%), median follow up 12 months]. One patient had an associated perforation, managed conservatively, Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and another patient had partial splenic embolization, without any AE. Median decline in hemoglobin 3gm/dL.One patient had recurrent bleding from pseudoaneurysm. Severe bleeding can be a dangerous problem that can occur at/after drainage of pancreatic fluid collections. After failed balloon tamponade, epinephrine and cautery, self-expandable metal stents, and direct or EUS-guided cyanoacrylate are options available to the endoscopist prior to proceeding to angiography or surgery. Larger prospective series are needed to confer benefit. “
“Conventional treatments for achalasia include endoscopic balloon dilation and Heller cardiomyotomy. The initial clinical cases utilizing the POEM technique were published in 2010. We hereby report a POEM procedure on a porcine model using a novel Submucosal Lifting Gel or SLG (Cook Medical), which facilitated a rapid submucosal dissection with minimal bleeding and excellent visibility. After marking the entrance point, pre-injection was performed using normal saline. Submucosal Lifting Gel was injected into the sub-mucosal layer.

Eventually, as marine pollution, but also safety issues forced th

Eventually, as marine pollution, but also safety issues forced the Hong Kong Government’s hand, fishing vessels were banned from the principal fairways of Victoria Harbour – the bustling hub of the then British colony. But, fishing, by any ZVADFMK means, was allowed everywhere else in the territory’s waters and the trawlers continued to tractor their trade over the territory’s inshore sea bed. A combination of modern technology,

local sea-faring knowledge and skill, and sheer audacity, allowed the trawlers to fish, literally, tens of metres from the shoreline and such sights do not disappear too easily from one’s memory. They seemed to catch everything and, circumspectly, it has been shown that they did. In 1967, it was estimated that the Hong Kong fishing fleet comprised some 6800 vessels with 56,000 local fishermen working them. By 2000, these numbers had dwindled to 4460 vessels, of which 2500 comprised P4 selleck chemicals llc (4 persons) sampans engaged in inshore fishing leaving a total of around 2000 sea-going vessels (Morton, 2000). By 2010, the total number of vessels has declined to 3700, of which 1100 are trawlers and of which, in turn, 700 larger such vessels operate outside Hong Kong’s waters while 400 operate either partly or wholly within them.

The numbers of fishermen working the boats also declined to 8100 (3200 family crew and 4900 mainland deckhands) by 2005 (Morton, 2005) and in 2009 it is estimated that but 6800 (2200 family crew and 4600 mainland deckhands) work the trawler fleet. There are, of course, many reasons for such decreases, including more efficient, larger, vessels but also, as seemingly everywhere, declining catches. When one considers the composition of the 400 strong inshore trawler fleet, not only was it found to constitute 80% of the engine power of the total fishing effort in Hong Kong waters, its composition in terms of pair, stern (otter-board), shrimp (towing 12 fine-mesh nets) and hang (fishing from the surface to the sea bed) trawlers ensured that little if anything could escape its attention and activities. Conservationists have long

argued that the inshore trawler fleet constitutes an unacceptable impact upon inshore waters and a sea bed for which there Methocarbamol are much more important uses and resources – including a thriving leisure fishing industry and an expanding network of popular public marine parks. In 1998, the, then, Agriculture and Fisheries Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government commissioned a consultancy study which showed that catches had fallen by ∼50% over the preceding decade but that, more worryingly, fry production had decreased by 90%. It was argued by conservation groups that this pointed to the over-fishing of Hong Kong’s inshore, territorial, waters and called for a total ban on all trawling in these nursery areas.

in the economic model The total catch

feeds then back in

in the economic model. The total catch

feeds then back into the biological model affecting the stock dynamics. The two sub-models have been specifically estimated and calibrated for the NEA cod fishery using data from the time period 1978–2007 (Table 1). The biological sub-model is based on a previously published model [31], which is parameterized for NEA cod. The biological model is individual-based, age- and length-structured, and describes an individual’s life-cycle from birth to death through annual processes of maturation, growth, reproduction, and mortality [31] and [32]. This model includes stock-specific estimated relationships for maturation tendency, density-dependent growth, stock–recruitment, and energy allocation. Individuals LY2109761 research buy vary in age, body size, and maturation status, which are tracked on an annual basis. Unlike some previous

models [31], [32], [33] and [34], this model reduces complexity by keeping life-history traits monomorphic and by not considering their evolutionary dynamics. The included life-history traits describe an individual’s maturation tendency, growth, and reproductive investment. All model parameters are based on empirical data (Table 1). Each year, the tendency that an immature individual will mature depends on a probabilistic maturation reaction norm [35], [36] and [37], which describes maturation probability pm(a,l) as a function of age a and body length l. This probability equals 50% at the length Metformin cost at age lP50(a)=i+sa, and is given by equation(1) pm(a,l)=1/(1+exp(−(l(a)−lP50(a))/c))pm(a,l)=1/(1+exp(−(l(a)−lP50(a))/c)) selleck screening library The probabilistic maturation reaction norm thus has intercept i   and slope s  . Its width w  , spanning from the 25% to the 75% percentile of maturation probability [31] and [32], is determined by the parameter c   where c=w/[logit(pu)−logit(pl)]c=w/[logit(pu)−logit(pl)],

and pu and pl are the probabilities for the upper and lower bounds of the PMRN. The growth rate of individuals depends on the total biomass of the population, to account for reductions in growth expected when population density is high and resource availability consequently is low. Data from 1978–2009 on annual growth increments g  D,t in year t  , together with data on total stock biomass B  t of individuals aged 3 years or older in year t  , were used to estimate the two parameters g   and x   of an exponential relationship for density-dependent growth, equation(2) gD,t=gexp(−xBt),gD,t=gexp(−xBt),where g   is the maximum growth increment (realized at B  t=0) and x   determines the strength of density dependence in growth ( Table 1). For immature individuals, denoted by a superscript I, body length in year t   is determined by their length in the previous year enhanced by the corresponding growth increment, ltI=lt−1I+gD,t−1.

Die Autoren berichteten im Ergebnisabschnitt ihrer Publikation, d

Die Autoren berichteten im Ergebnisabschnitt ihrer Publikation, dass Speichel-, Plasma- und Erythrozytenproben eine signifikante, mit der Expositionsgruppe in Zusammenhang stehende Erhöhung der Mn-Konzentrationen aufwiesen, verglichen mit den Durchschnittswerten der Kontroll-, niedrig und hoch exponierten Gruppe Außerdem Crizotinib mouse beobachteten sie, dass die Mn-Konzentration im Speichel schwach, aber signifikant mit den Berufsjahren und dem Alter korrelierte. Die Fe-Konzentration in Speichel- und Haarproben war beim Vergleich der Expositionsgruppen mit der Kontrollgruppe signifikant erhöht.

Andererseits war die Fe-Konzentration in Plasma und Erythrozyten signifikant niedriger, wobei sich die Ferritin-Konzentration sowohl im Serum als auch im Speichel bei den verschiedenen Gruppen nicht signifikant unterschied. Der Tf-Spiegel im Serum war bei den Mn-exponierten Schmelzern im Vergleich zu den Kontrollpersonen um 19-26 % (p < 0,05) erhöht. Am Ende waren mehr als 15 biologische Parameter aus fünf wichtigen biologischen Matrizes untersucht worden. Im Diskussionsabschnitt ihrer Publikation folgerten die Autoren

überraschenderweise, dass,,keiner dieser Parameter mit den Berufsjahren oder dem Alter der Arbeiter assoziiert war“, obwohl die Arbeiter anhand Methocarbamol des Mn/Fe-Quotienten (MIR) von den Kontrollen unterschieden werden konnten. Diese Schlussfolgerung

BKM120 mouse scheint im Gegensatz zu den oben erwähnten Ergebnissen (signifikante Assoziation) zu stehen und lässt den Leser in diesem Punkt verwirrt zurück. Der MIR für Erythrozyten und Plasma war bei Schmelzern im Vergleich zu den Kontrollpersonen signifikant (p < 0,05) erhöht. Der MIR im Speichel war bei der stark exponierten Gruppe, nicht aber bei der schwach exponierten Gruppe signifikant erhöht. Insgesamt korrelierten der MIR in Erythrozyten und der im Plasma stark mit der Mn-Konzentration in der Luft, und deren Unterschiede wurden durch Alter, Geschlecht, Einkommen oder Berufsjahre nicht signifikant beeinflusst. Im Jahr 2009 berichteten Cowan et al. [104], dass der MIR im Blut stärker mit der Mn-Konzentration in der Luft korrelierte. Jedoch können Krankheiten wie Anämie, die nicht mit der Exposition in Beziehung stehen, diesen möglichen Biomarker stark beeinflussen und seinen prädiktiven Wert einschränken. Schließlich hat unsere Gruppe im Rahmen der Entwicklung einer HBM-Strategie kürzlich eine Korrelation zwischen Mn-Spezies im Serum und der Mn-Konzentration im Liquor errechnet (siehe Abschnitt Mn-Speziation).