Hematoxylin and eosin staining of both the 1st and 4th mammary glands of the doxycycline induced double transgenic mice displayed increased pri mary and secondary side branching at all time points when compared to their un induced double transgenic littermate controls. We also observed an increase in tertiary side branching although this has been known reference 2 to occur in response to estrous cycle. In addition, pregnant doxycycline induced double transgenic mice at 10. 5 dpc also displayed more alveoli tissue than the un induced double transgenic controls. The samples used for whole mount analysis were from two independent founder lines and the results were consistent between these two lines. Several in vitro studies have suggested that the over expression of Tbx3 TBX3 leads to the bypass of senes cence and promotes cell proliferation.
To determine whether the observed accelerated develop ment of the mammary glands in TBX3 over expressing mice is due to an increase in cell proliferation, we per formed an EdU cell proliferation assay. The 4th mam mary glands from pregnant doxycycline induced and un induced double transgenic mice were harvested at 10. 5 dpc and used for the assay. The proportion of nucleated cells incorporating EdU was quantified by fluorescence microscopy and normalized to the total cell number in each 20�� field. After quantifica tion, we found that the percentage of Edu positive cells is significantly higher in mammary glands over expressing TBX3, than their un induced controls.
This result suggests that over expression of TBX3 may promote accelerated mammary gland devel opment by promoting mammary epithelial cell prolifera tion in vivo. Since highly proliferative tissues are associated Carfilzomib with carcinogenesis, we next analysed the histology of the 3rd mammary glands of 15 week old mice to identify if any unusual morphological changes have occurred. Hema toxylin and eosin staining of the doxycycline induced double transgenic mouse mammary gland showed mild focal hyperplasia and discontinued ductal epithelium when com pared to the littermate control. By the age of 20 months, none of the doxycycline induced double transgenic mice had developed tumors. TBX3 represses NF BIB In our double transgenic mouse model in which TBX3 was over expressed, we observed accelerated develop ment of the mammary gland from 7 weeks of age through pregnancy, specifically enhanced branching and ductal elongation. Moreover mice that over expressed TBX3 also had a significantly higher percentage of pro liferating mammary epithelial cells than controls.