Exposure to stress has consistently been shown to impair performa

Exposure to stress has consistently been shown to impair performance on such

tasks in nonhuman primates and male rodents,14 but until recently, neither sex differences nor estrogen effects on this phenomenon had been explored. The first studies to examine sex differences in the effects of stress on PFC function elicited the stress response in young adult male and female rats with injections Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of varying doses of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142. FG7142 is a well-documented anxiogenic drug that is frequently used as a model for stress, given its reliability in producing the biochemical and physiological effects of stress: increased corticosterone release, increased catecholamine turnover, elevated heart rate, and increased blood pressure.15 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical selleck Moreover, animals that have been administered FG7142 exhibit classic stress-related behaviors, including defecating, urinating, freezing, and ultra-sonic vocalizations.16 Following FG7142 administration, animals were tested on a classic measure of working memory – delayed alternation in the T-maze. At high doses of FG7142, all animals displayed impairment

on the T-maze. At lower doses, however, only females showed impairment, suggesting that they were more sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress on mPFC function (Figure 1a). To test whether fluctuating hormones Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical produced this sex effect, the experiment was repeated while female rats’ estrus phase was monitored. It was found that these rats only displayed sensitivity to FG7142 during proestrus, when estrogen levels are highest. Animals in estrus, characterized by low estrogen levels,

responded to the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical low dose of FG7142 in a manner comparable to that of males – that is, showing no impairment at all17 (Figure 1b). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical This effect was further replicated using a more conventional stress paradigm, restraint. While 2 hours of restraint stress produced working memory impairments in all groups, only females in proestrus were impaired by 1 hour of restraint as well (Figure 1c).18 Taken together, these studies suggest that fluctuating hormones can interact with stress systems to modulate PFC function during stress. Figure 1. Sex differences and estrogen effects on stress-induced working memory impairment a) Dose-response curve for male and female animals’ performance on Endonuclease working memory task delayed alternation after administration of pharmacological stressor FG7142. Mean … This idea was explored further by ovariectomizing a new group of female rats, and implanting a time-release capsule containing either estrogen (OVX + E) or cholesterol (OVX) as a control. These rats were then treated with the same low dose of FG7142 that impaired proestrus females, but not estrus females or males, and then tested on the T-maze task.

2000) The brain’s output channel is a certain signal in the EEG

2000). The brain’s output learn more channel is a certain signal in the EEG and the generation of this signal does not depend on the orientation of the eyes, but on the user’s intent (Sutton et al. 1965; Donchin 1981; Fabiani et al. 1987). This second group of BCIs seems to be more useful for ALS patients, who show damage in the output ways of peripheral nerves and muscles. The elements of a BCI There are four essential

parts of a BCI: (1) information input (i.e., recorded brain activity from the user), (2) signal processing (i.e., the components that translate raw information into output), (3) output (i.e., the commands administered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by the BCI system), and (4) operating protocol that determines the timing of operation. These elements interact in order to produce the user’s intention. Signal acquisition is the measurement of the electrophysiological activity of the brain. This measurement is usually recorded via electrodes that can be either noninvasive (e.g., Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical EEG) or invasive (i.e., intracortical). Moreover, BCIs can be categorized by whether they use evoked (e.g., EEG signals elicited by flashing letters) or spontaneous (e.g., EEG rhythms over cortex) inputs. Evoked inputs are generated by sensory stimulation provided by the BCI, while

spontaneous inputs do not depend on such stimulation. The most common type of input is EEG recorded from the scalp (Vidal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1977; Farwell and Donchin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1988; Pfurtscheller et al. 2000; Freeman et al. 2003). In this first part of BCI systems, the input is acquired by the electrodes, then amplified, digitalized, and sent to the BCI system for further analysis. Signal processing is the procedure to extract specific signal

features that reflect the user’s intent. In the signal processing stage, feature extraction process is carried out and the features are then converted, through translation algorithms, into commands that can operate and control devices (for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a review see Norani et al. 2010). The output device is usually a computer screen and the output is the selection of targets (letters or icons) presented on it, performed by the BCI (see, for example, Farwell and Donchin 1988; Wolpaw et al. 1991; Perelmouter et al. 1999; Pfurtscheller et al. 2000). These targets are flashed or indicated in various ways. Other BCIs output includes moving a cursor on the screen, controlling a robotic arm, or controlling some other physiological very process. The operating protocol guides the BCI operations. It defines how the system is turned on and off, what kind of feedback is provided to the user, the sequence and the speed of interactions between user and system, and the speed with which the system implements commands (Wolpaw et al. 2002; Leuthardt et al. 2009). In most research protocols, the investigator sets these parameters and the users do not have on/off control, they just have to achieve very limited goals and tasks.

to the market so far The reasons for this are multiple and have

to the market so far. The reasons for this are multiple and have been analyzed in recent, reviews.3,10,112 We believe that four factors have been particularly important for the lack of success in the development, of new drugs for psychiatric disorders: (i) lack of adequate diagnostic classification; (ii) lack of adequate animal models; (iii) lack of adequate translational work; (iv) problems in target validation. First, the present diagnostic and classification system Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in psychiatry is based on arrays of symptoms,

rather than on neurobiology, epidemiology, genetics, or response to treatments. A primary goal in this area is the development of a diagnostic system based on these different aspects, rather than on the phenomenology of the disease. This is especially timely if one takes into account Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the recent progress in the knowledge of genetic factors, psychosocial stressors, and most important gene-environment

interactions in predisposing for pathology.113 Second, we still lack adequate animal models of depression and/or anxiety. Most available models arc either based on the exposure of “normal” animals to different. paradigms of acute or chronic stress, or they are straightforward knockouts for some of the genes that have been involved in depression. Obviously, depressed patients are not gene knockouts; they carry different, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical combinations of gene mutations that (most probably through multiple gene interactions) may combine with adverse life events predisposing for disease. Therefore, what is needed is the development of animal models carrying known human mutations or noncharacterized Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical genetic vulnerability (but. with good face, construct, and predictive validity), subjected to validated stress paradigms.82,113,114 What seems crucial is to reproduce to some extent the

gene-environment interaction that is believed to be central to human depression. Third, there is a lack of sufficient, translational efforts applying recent neuroscience research findings and technology to pharmacology and biological psychiatry. In spite of the great development, of research on postreceptor signaling cascades, gene Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical expression, epige netic mechanisms, synaptic plasticity, identification of biomarkers Ribonucleotide reductase for vulnerability and drug response/resistance by global genomics/Selleck BGB324 proteomics, a large part, of current, pharmaceutical research is still focused on the stereotype “reccptor-ligand” interaction. As a consequence, several recent “novel” drugs in psychiatry are still compounds acting on neurotransmitter receptors or transporters. Although the trend has been changing lately, still a good part of the new basic knowledge needs to be applied to or interfaced with target discovery/validation and clinical research. Fourth, target validation is still one of the main problems in psychiatric pharmacology, because in most cases ultimate validation is missing or may be obtained only when the drug is already on the market.


some strictures which initially appear malignan


some strictures which initially appear malignant may later be found to be due to treatable causes such as chronic pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis. If endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration and on-site cytologic Wnt mutation review is available, then this dilemma can often be solved at the time of the procedure. However, EUS is not at widespread at ERCP and many endoscopists (particularly in community settings) will Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have to rely on a high index of suspicion for placing a metallic stent across a presumed malignant stricture. The concern about removal of the stent in cases of benign disease would seem to be addressed by the use of a covered metallic stent. At this time there is no data specifically on the performance of covered metallic stents in patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy, though the main factor which makes metallic stents preferable (i.e., Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical larger diameter) is still present. In summary, the study by Adams et al. lends further support to the notion that SEMS are a superior device

for management of malignant obstruction in pancreatic cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy. This patient population is likely to grow as more centers embrace neoadjuvant therapy, so this kind of knowledge is critical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to providing the best outcomes for patients facing this life-threatening illness. It seems increasingly clear that plastic stents are now an obsolete device for management of strictures in pancreatic cancer, and that it is time to embrace metallic stents for all patients with this disease who are not sent immediately to curative surgery, or expected to survive less than six months. Acknowledgements Disclosure: The author declares no conflict of interest.

the Editor, We would like to thank Dr. Kapetanakis and his Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical colleagues for their interest in our article Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (1). We specifically appreciate the attention they brought to the importance of environmental factors, particularly Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, in the development of sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC). While the focus of our article was on the pathologic aspects (2), we would like to take this opportunity to extend our discussion to H. pylori as a others potential etiopathogenetic factor in colorectal tumorigenesis. As mentioned by Dr. Kapetanakis and his colleagues, the development of sporadic CRC is associated with a variety of environmental factors including diet and lifestyle. Given that the colon harbors the largest number of microorganisms in the body, it is natural to assume that certain microbial species may play a role in colorectal tumorigenesis. The first reports connecting intestinal microflora with CRC were published back in the early 1950s. Streptococcus bovis septicemia was reported to be associated with carcinoma of the sigmoid colon (3). This association was subsequently supported by several publications (4-6). Animal studies have shown that S.

BRC monitors the use of the CRIS database and patients are able

BRC monitors the use of the CRIS database and patients are able

to opt out of the CRIS database if they choose. We found 13 cases of reported priapism between 2000 and 2010, 6 in patients taking risperidone (3 as monotherapy and 3 in combination with other drugs). Five cases were associated with trazodone, 1 with paroxetine, 1 with clozapine and citalopram (Table Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2). Table 2. South London and Maudsley patients review. In the UK, 37 cases of priapism in patients taking risperidone have been reported so far to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency since the drug was licensed in 1992 (including the case described in this paper), with a total number of 7961 reactions reported in patients on risperidone. It is difficult to draw a typical risk

profile from these EPZ5676 in vitro findings. However, it seems priapism Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical can occur at any time from a few days following initiation of treatment up to 2 years. The age of those affected ranged from 13 to 65, although in a majority of cases, patients were in their 30s, 40s and 50s. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The most striking feature of this review is the ethnic background of the patients. Out of 32 cases described in the literature, the ethnic group was known for 14 patients, 8 of which were of African-Caribbean origin, 4 were Hispanic. Out of the six cases identified at SLAM, four were of African-Caribbean origin, a population group more likely to be on antipsychotic medication [Bresnahan et al. 2007; Fearon et al. 2006; Kirkbride et al. 2006; Xanthos, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2008]. It is also worth noting that SLAM serves a migrant multiethnic catchment area, with a significant black African–Caribbean population, which undoubtedly contributes to this community being over represented in our small sample. We are not aware from our literature review of any described genetic predisposition in the black population with the exception of sickle cell disease, which is the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical most common cause in children [Adeyoju et al. 2002] and to a lesser extent sickle cell trait [Adeyoju et

al. 2002; Birnbaum and Pinzone, 2008; Larocque and Cosgrove, 1974]. Unfortunately not all published case reports report whether sickle cell Endonuclease disease or trait was present. Among atypical antipsychotics, risperidone and ziprasidone have the highest affinity for α-adrenergic receptors [Andersohn et al. 2010] and have been associated with several cases of priapism, both when administered as a monotherapy or in combination with other drugs [Brichart et al. 2008; Sood et al. 2008]. α-Adrenergic receptors have a significant role in physiologic erectile function and classes of drugs with α-adrenergic antagonistic properties can cause priapism [Horowitz and Goble, 1979; Traish et al. 2000] by inhibiting the process that causes penile detumescence [Spagnul et al. 2011].

PSG is a complete, nocturnal, laboratory-based monitoring, which

PSG is a complete, nocturnal, laboratory-based monitoring, which simultaneously records numerous variables during sleep. It includes sleep staging (EEG), elcctro-oculogram (EOG), submental electromyogram (EMG), nasal or oral airflow, respiratory effort, oximetry, electrocardiogram (ECG), anterior tibialis EMG, and position monitoring. Depending

upon the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clinical diagnosis, additional parameters may be added: transcutaneous CO2 monitoring or end-tidal gas analysis; extremity muscle activity; motor activity movement; extended video-EEG; penile tumescence; Tivantinib molecular weight esophageal pressure; gastroesophageal reflux; snoring; and continuous blood pressure recording.15-17 Modified forms of PSG include daytime Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical nap PSG, splitnight studies, and portable recording studies.18-21 Daytime PSG is reported to have a high negative predictive value (95% when the apnea-hypopnea index AHI] ≥10) for OSAS, but results are inconsistent.18 Split-night studies may save time and money, but it is still controversial whether diagnosis and treatment are adequately established21,22. The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) has formulated guidelines for the use of PSGs, split-night studies, and portable recordings.15,16,19 The MSLT is used to confirm the diagnosis of narcolepsy; to assess complaints of moderate to severe sleepiness in patients with mild to moderate OSAS,

idiopathic hypersomnia, PLMD, some circadian rhythm disorders, and unknown causes of excessive sleepiness; to evaluate the complaint of insomnia when

moderate to severe excessive daytime sleepiness is suspected; and to assess response to treatment following therapy for disorders that cause sleepiness when an additional sleep disorder that produces Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sleepiness is suspected:23,24 The MWT is used less commonly than the MSLT mainly to assess improved alertness following therapeutic interventions.23-25 Actigraphy uses a small portable device that senses physical motion and stores the resulting information. Actigraphic studies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical need to be conducted for a minimum of three consecutive 24-h periods.26,27 The AASM Standards of Practice Committee recently updated practice parameters which state that actigraphy is not indicated for the routine diagnosis, assessment of severity, or management Suplatast tosilate of any of the sleep disorders.28 However, it may be a useful adjunct that provides objective demonstration of multiday rest/activity patterns, which can be used to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or assessment of treatment effects in various sleep disorders, including insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, RLS/PLMD, and disorders of excessive sleepiness.26 Video-PSG may be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with arousal disorders or other sleep disruptions that are believed to be seizure-related.15,16 NPT for sleep-related erections (SRE) is an adjunct in the diagnosis of impotence.

People can contact them by dialling the three-digit numbers 115,

People can contact them by dialling the three-digit numbers 115, 110 and 125, respectively. Additional potential actors include different ambulance services and the Red Crescent, whose activities are primarily focused on rendering relief to the victims of natural and man-made disasters in general [36] but who can become involved in multiple crashes and road-victim management. Further, as mentioned earlier, members form public, who are usually present Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical at crash scenes, can also help victims and transport them

to hospital. Participants Stakeholders of varying experience and knowledge, representing different perspectives on PCM, were approached for interviews. A few victims were also interviewed because of the unique perspective they could add on what takes place Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical at the crash scene. The number of participants was determined based on saturation principles [34]. From thirty-eight approached participants, thirty-six agreed to be interviewed, including seven members of the Emergency Medical Services (abbreviated as EMS) – physicians, nurses, and technicians -, six police officers (PO), two members of Red Crescent (RC), one firefighter (FF), five public health professionals (PH), two experts members from the Ministry of Road (RT), four experts from Road & Transportation Office (RT), two motorcyclists (MC), two car drivers (CD), and five road Cabozantinib traffic injury Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical victims (VI).

EMS members Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and public health professionals had academic knowledge and experience of victim management with regard to training and re-training in their field. Red Crescent members, firefighters and police officers also had experience and training in the field of RTI victim management.

Their age range was between 20 and 65, with education level ranging from nine-year intermediate school to professional education in the field of medicine. Data collection Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews beginning with general questions, gradually progressing to more specific ones. Probing was performed according to the reflections of each participant, concerning prior experiences of the post-crash event; perception about barriers to PCM; opinions about facilitators of effective PCM; opinions relating to the role of laypeople at crash scenes; opinions about the organization and coordination of PCM. The interviews lasted between 45 and 80 minutes. very They were conducted between March and December 2007. Finding and contacting eligible participants was made easier by the fact that the principal investigator had experience in the domain, having worked with the management of road traffic injury victims. The interviews were conducted in Persian, transcribed verbatim and summarized in English, and two interviews had read by a researcher who was not a Persian speaker. The rest of the researchers were fluent in both Persian and English. Data analysis The interview transcriptions were compared with the recorded digital files for accuracy.

The clinical manifestations of spinal

cord fixation syndr

The clinical manifestations of spinal

cord fixation syndromes are believed to result from an ischemic event, usually caused by stretching of the spinal cord, with early Selleck CDK inhibitor surgical release allowing the best chance for neurologic recovery.53 The incidence of retethering in the myelomeningocele population has been estimated at 15% to 20%.54 Its diagnosis is primarily clinical, with patients presenting with progressive or subtle loss of function, and it is usually detected by Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical careful and regular evaluations. It is important for urologists to recognize the presence of a tethered cord because it may present as new-onset or a pattern change of voiding dysfunction in this population. Numerous reports have shown urodynamic improvements in some patients after surgical release of the fixed spinal cord.55–62 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Screening for a tethered cord. Patients at risk for a tethered cord include those with cloacal exstrophy, imperforate anus, VATER syndrome, and cutaneous stigmata of occult dysraphism (focal hirsutism, midline dermal sinus above the gluteal crease, subcutaneous lipoma, capillary hemangioma,

midline appendages, dermal dysplasia resembling a “cigarette burn”), among others (Tables 3 and ​and4).4). It is recognized that up to 10% to 50% of patients with surgically significant occult spinal dysraphism will have normal skin; therefore, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical screening for intradural pathology only on the basis of skin inspection is a poor method of detection.63 Table 4 Conditions Requiring Screening for Spinal Dysraphism The majority of myelomeningocele patients have radiographic evidence of a tethered cord on MRI. Therefore, radiographic evidence alone is not a justification for operation. Patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with symptoms referable to the area, particularly if the problems are progressive, should be considered candidates for operative detethering. Symptoms may be subtle and may simply be a change in the continence pattern

or a worsening in scoliosis. Children with voiding dysfunction are a mainstay of urologic practice. Evaluation of all of them by MRI looking Endonuclease for a neurologic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cause is inappropriate and costly. There are some criteria that will enhance the yield. Any patient with cutaneous stigmata of occult dysraphism should be imaged, whether symptomatic or not. This implies that the skin of the back should be examined. Any child with neurologic deficit or back or leg pain should also be imaged. Those with a neurogenic pattern to their urodynamic study or significant bony dysmorphism should be considered. Appropriate imaging of the intradural anatomy can be accomplished in a child up to 4 to 6 months of age by ultrasonograpy.64,65 Premature children should not be screened until they reach full-term gestational age because of the naturally low position of the conus. After 6 months of age, MRI is the most appropriate imaging study.

Rare haplotypes, which per se apparently do not represent particu

Rare haplotypes, which per se apparently do not represent particularly favorable drug targets, may nevertheless require particular attention

as potential mediators of severe side effects and may constitute significant, fractions of individual gene sequences resulting in the same protein isoform25 or share a common pattern conferring risk.29 Finally, as outlined earlier, any extreme may be possible: this may include, at the one end of the spectrum, completely invariable genes that may amount to about, 20% of all genes and, at the other end, highly decomposed genes with frequencies of numerous sequence haplotypes not exceeding 4%, for instance. Obviously, a drug target is the more attractive if it has a low variability Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and decomposition into different haplotype(s) (classes) and protein

isoforms. In this context, the modern version of a blockbuster drug target in the postgenome Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical age of genetic variation would be an invariable gene. The pharmaccutically most attractive component of a proposed catalogue of all haplotypes of all genes as the ultimate biomedical resource would probably be the specific fraction containing the most, invariable genes. In reality though, we may have to concentrate on manageable variability, ie, scenarios where variability is limited or the functional implications Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are clearly definable. If a drug has not been tailored a priori to the target, in its variable, naturally occurring forms, incompatibilities, ineffectiveness, and adverse side effects will become apparent sooner or later. The molecular truth will eventually Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical take its toll on both individuals and the pharmaceutical industry. Any developments that are driven by the vision of a personalized medicine11-14 will have to be based on knowledge of the molecular diversity of potential drug targets and, generally, of any genes involved in drug action and metabolism.9,85,86 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical This information will be essential for decision-making processes. It will also be valuable in guiding in vitro screens and their specific experimental design. It will allow an extrapolation of drug response in population segments, as well as a correlation

of in vitro and in vivo responsiveness (in conjunction with information PD184352 (CI-1040) on the genetic makeup of drug-metabolizing enzymes and competing, homologous targets). The integration of knowledge on human genetic variation into all phases of drug development, and application will be one of the pharmaceutical BMS-907351 clinical trial industry’s major future tasks. Last but not least, what does the evidence for gene decomposition into multiple forms tell us about, the prospects for an individualized medicine?11-14,87 The fact, that individual sequence differences exist, does not, mean that tailoring drugs to each individual is possible or feasible. Given the remarkable genetic diversity and its challenges, this vision may seem somewhat too bold and unrealistic at this stage.

Other relevant innovative methods based on MRI are diffusion tens

Other relevant innovative methods based on MRI are diffusion tensor imaging, which facilitates imaging of linked brain structures (circuits), as well as NVP-BGJ398 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which facilitates imaging of the metabolic state of brain cells. As more powerful magnetic imaging tools such as 7-Tesla MRI machines become available, opportunities for increased resolution down to the level of large proteins may create the possibility of imaging brain amyloid in AD, for example. Similarly, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical positron emission tomography (PET)

offers great opportunities, since molecular imaging is likely to be a powerful way of imaging where the action is with regard to psychopathology. As PET ligands imaging specific molecules in the living brain become more available, opportunities will emerge to image specific neurotransmitters alongside Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical other important molecules. The same is true of genetics. Genes interact with the environment and have a role in the genesis and maintenance of many neuropsychiatrie syndromes. Well-designed genetic association studies, and possibly family studies, will reveal genetic factors associated with the emergence of psychopathology in brain disease. Treatment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical development. A lesson learned repeatedly in neuropsychiatry is that therapeutic

strategies developed in other settings need to be tested again in this context. Disease-specific efforts building upon phenomenology

and risk factor studies as described above will be critical to developing specific therapies for the psychiatric syndromes seen in brain disease. Many of these initially will be symptomatic, but eventually the effort Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical should be targeted at developing therapies that address the underlying brain disease and the reasons Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for which the neuropsychiatrie symptoms develop. Conclusion In recent decades the field of neuropsychiatry has reemerged as a branch of medicine well-suited to addressing the intricate crossroads of brain dysfunction and behavioral Tryptophan synthase phenomena. As this discussion highlights, conditions such as TBI, stroke, PD, AD, MS, and epilepsy demonstrate high rates of psychopathology despite varied pathophysiologic and pathogenetic origins. Armed with clinical expertise alongside the latest advances in neuroscience, neuropsychiatrists stand ready to utilize a pragmatic and methodological approach to understanding these myriad and complex conditions. The thoughtful application of the disease paradigm provides a reasoned tool to drive this process. Improved characterization of behavioral phenomenology will set the stage for the clarification of relevant risk factors, inform the application of the emerging methods of brain imaging and genetics, and ultimately lead to the development of optimized treatment approaches.