1-0 2% of women, and is characterised by delusions, mood swings,

1-0.2% of women, and is characterised by delusions, mood swings, confused Ricolinostat in vivo thinking, and disorganised behaviour. The condition is disturbing for patients and their family members and loved ones, and affected individuals may be at increased risk of harming themselves or their offspring. The features of PP indicate a substantial biological basis to its pathogenesis, although currently little is known about possible risk factors. Based on recent results from animal model and human studies, I propose that reduced function of the

enzyme steroid sulfatase in the mother represents a unifying and physiologically plausible candidate mechanism for the neural and endocrinological disturbances seen in cases of PP.”
“Classically, the olfactory and vomeronasal pathways are thought to run in parallel non-overlapping axes in the forebrain

subserving different functions. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (primary projections), which in turn project to different areas of the telencephalon in a non-topographic fashion (secondary projections) and so on (tertiary projections). New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs converge widely in the rostral basal telencephalon. In contrast, in the vomeronasal CB-5083 research buy system, cloning two classes of vomeronasal receptors (VI R and V2R) has led to the distinction of two anatomically and functionally independent pathways

that reach some common, but also some different, targets in the amygdala. Tertiary projections from the olfactory and vomeronasal amygdalae are directed to the ventral striatum, which thus becomes a site for processing and potential convergence of chemosensory stimuli. Functional data indicate that the olfactory and vomeronasal systems are able to detect and process volatiles (presumptive olfactory cues) as well as pheromones in both epithelia and bulbs. Collectively, these data indicate that the anatomical and functional distinction between the olfactory and vomeronasal systems should be re-evaluated. Specifically, the recipient cortex should be reorganized to include olfactory, vomeronasal (convergent and VI R and V2R specific areas) and mixed (olfactory and vomeronasal) chemosensory cortices. This new perspective could help to unravel check details olfactory and vomeronasal interactions in behavioral paradigms. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A single-colour microarray hybridization system was designed and evaluated for the detection of viruses infecting grapevine. Total RNA (>= 0.5 p,g) from infected plants was converted to cDNA and labelled with Cy3 using two different strategies. While amine-modified and labelled cDNA was adequate for the detection of nepoviruses, the 3DNA technique, a post-hybridization detection method that uses intensely fluorescent dendrimer reagents, was required for the detection of closteroviruses in infected plants.

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