Usually, the this website frictional coefficient is a criterion to estimate the machining resistance, which is defined as the ratio of average tangential force to normal force during the steady stage. All the average cutting forces and frictional coefficients are listed in Table 3. Table 3 Average cutting force and frictional coefficient with different undeformed chip thickness Cutting direction Cutting depth (nm) Tangential force (nN) Normal force (nN) Frictional
coefficient on (010) surface 1 315.3 647.5 0.487 on (111) surface 1 342.5 659.1 0.520 on (010) surface 2 550.7 1056.9 0.521 on (111) surface 2 592.4 1058.5 0.560 on (010) surface 3 778.0 1360.4 0.572 on (111) surface 3 850.4 1372.8 0.619 In the same crystal orientation, the tangential and normal forces increase with an increase EPZ-6438 in undeformed chip thickness as expected. Meanwhile, the frictional coefficient also augments, which means the cutting resistance increases. With the same undeformed chip thickness,
the tangential force on (111) crystal click here face is greater than that on (010) crystal face, and the difference becomes bigger when the undeformed chip thickness increases. However, the average normal forces for both of them are almost the same with the same undeformed chip thickness. It implies that the cutting resistance of nanometric cutting along on (111) surface is greater than that along on (010) surface, as shown in Figure 9a,b. Except for the heat dissipation, the energy dissipations for nanometric cutting are mainly the amorphization of chip and machined Phospholipase D1 surface when undeformed chip thickness is 3 nm. (111) plane of germanium has a bigger atomic planar density than (100) plane, so the cutting force of machining on (111) plane is greater than that on (100) plane. Figure 9 Cutting characteristics variations.
(a) Cutting force, (b) frictional coefficient, and (c) specific energy. The crystal orientations are on (010) plane and (111) plane. Figure 9c shows the variation in specific energy with the change of depth of cut. The specific energy decreases with an increase in undeformed chip thickness, which can be explained by the size effect . This phenomenon depends on several factors such as material strengthening, extrusion and ploughing due to finite edge radius, material separation effects, and so on. Surface and subsurface deformation Germanium and silicon belong to the group IV elements, of which the single crystals are important technological materials with a wide range of applications in semiconductor field, and their natures are similar in many aspects. With an increase in pressure, both experimental and theoretical investigations show that phase transformation in germanium from its diamond cubic structure to the metallic β-Sn structure would take place under pure hydrostatic pressure of about 10 GPa .