The significant amount of empirically based knowledge available in OCD has been valuable in providing direction for both pharmacological and psychological treatment research, and is proving important in areas where research is just beginning, such as neuroimaging. It is clear that the OC spectrum disorders differ in systematic ways and that looking at them in terms of compulsivity and impulsivity is adding focus to research on their etiology, neurobiology, and treatment. Most notably, research available to date indicates that, while many of these Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorders seem to respond meaningfully to SRI treatment, the compulsive disorders seem to
require higher dosages, have a substantial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical latency to response, and that response is maintained throughout treatment; in contrast, impulsive disorders may require lower doses and have a relatively quick response. As research into the etiology and neurobiology continues, both the concept of the OC spectrum and the significance of compulsivity and impulsivity will be tested further.
Selected abbreviations and acronyms ASD autism spectrum disorder BDD body dysmorphic disorder CBT cognitive behavioral therapy OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder OC obsessive-compulsive (spectrum) PG pathological gambling PRD paraphilia-related disorder SC sexual compulsivity SNRI serotonin and norepinephrine learn more reuptake inhibitor SRI serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical selective serotonin reuptake Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical inhibitor Notes We would like to acknowledge grants from the National Institutes of Health (1 U54 MH66673), the National Institute of Mental Health (5 RO1 MH58935), the National Institute of Drug Abuse (DA 10234), the Food and Drug Administration (FD R 002026; FD R 001520), the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (1 R21 NS543979), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and an unrestricted grant from the Paula and Bill Oppenheim (PBO) Foundation.
The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are among the disabling medical disorders.
They frequently begin early in life, are characterized by repeated episodes and chronicity, and can have serious medical and psychological consequences leading only to functional disability in many patients. These disorders are currently diagnosed using standardized diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV] and International Classification of Diseases [ICD-10]), which are almost exclusively based upon phenomenology, and not genetics, etiology, or pathophysiology.1 This has hampered progress in some spheres, since these disorders, as currently diagnosed, are often comorbid with each other, and advances in preclinical and clinical neuroscience suggest that there may be overlapping circuit and neurochemical modulation of behaviors that characterize one or more of these disorders.