P somniferum suspension cultures responded to elicitor treatment

P. somniferum suspension cultures responded to elicitor treatment with strong and transient increase of LOX activity followed by sanguinarine accumulation. LOX activity increased www.selleckchem.com/products/nu7441.html in elicited cultures, reaching 9.8 times of the initial value at 10 h after MJ application and 2.9 times after B. cinerea

application. Sanguinarine accumulated to maximal levels of 169.5 +/- 12.5 mu g g(-1) dry cell weight in MJ-elicited cultures and 288.0 +/- 10.0 mu g g(-1) dry cell weight in B. cinerea-elicited cultures. The treatment of cells with phenidone before elicitor addition, significantly reduced sanguinarine production. The relative molecular weight of P. somniferum LOX (83 kDa) was estimated SC75741 ic50 by using immunobloting and its pH optimum was shown to be pH 6.5. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“After bilateral implantation of an angle-supported anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) in an allergic patient, the haptic tips were exposed through the limbus in the left eye. Endophthalmitis developed in the eye and was treated by pars plana vitrectomy, IOL extraction, and intravitreal antibiotic

injection. Haptic repositioning was performed in the right eye. In this report, we assess the possibility that exposure of the angle-supported AC IOL haptics caused the endophthalmitis. We hypothesized that vigorous rubbing of the eye of the atopic patient might cause limbal erosion that could lead to exposure of the angle-supported AC IOL haptic through the limbus.”
“The crystallization

speed (v) of the amorphous (InTe)(x)(GeTe) (x=0.1, 0.3, and 0.5) films and their thermal, optical, and electrical behaviors were investigated by using a nanopulse scanner (wavelength=658 nm, laser beam diameter <2 mu m), x-ray diffraction, a four-point probe, and a UV-vis-IR spectrophotometer. These results were compared to the results for a Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) film, which was comprehensively utilized for phase-change random access memory (PRAM). Both the v-value and the thermal stability of the (InTe)(0.1)(GeTe) and (InTe)(0.3)(GeTe) films were enhanced in comparison to the GST film. PLX-4720 inhibitor Contrarily, the v-value of the (InTe)(0.5)(GeTe) film was so drastically deteriorated that it could not be quantitatively evaluated. This deterioration occurred because the amorphous (InTe)(0.5)(GeTe) film had relatively high reflectance, resulting in the absorption being too low to cause the crystallization. Conclusively, proper compositional (InTe)(x)(GeTe) films (e.g., x<0.3) could be good candidates for PRAM application with both high crystallization speed and thermal stability. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

A sharp increase in the adhesive strength was found to be due to

A sharp increase in the adhesive strength was found to be due to the formation of shorter grafted polymer chains at lower monomer concentrations and/or the restriction of the location of grafting to the outer surface region at lower temperatures. In addition, the adhesive strength also sharply increased at even lower grafted

amounts for photografting onto the HDPE plates and/or that of AA because the location of grafting was restricted to the outer surface region. For the AA-grafted LDPE and HDPE plates, substrate breaking was observed. This was attributed to the coverage of the substrate surfaces with grafted poly(acrylic acid) chains at lower grafted amounts and a high water absorptivity of the grafted layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the grafted LDPE plates find more incubated in a dopamine solution Bindarit containing tyrosinase suggested that the increase in the adhesive strength was caused by the penetration of enzymatically modified chitosan solutions in the grafted layers and the subsequent reaction of quinone derivatives enzymatically generated with grafted polymer chains. In addition, the surface analysis of the failed surfaces by XPS showed that as the adhesive strength increased, the location of failure was shifted from the interface between the layers mixed with enzymatically modified chitosan materials and grafted

polymer chains to the inside the grafted layer containing enzymatically modified chitosan materials. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 939-950, 2011″
“Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, beta-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the Selleck Pifithrin-α use of the endosperm

oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs) released from TAG or as intact TAG immediately degraded to FFAs. These data were supported by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM) studies where close contact between endosperm lipid droplets and the scutellum was observed. The appearance of the fused oil in the oat endosperm changed into oil droplets during germination in areas close to the aleurone and the scutellar epithelium. However, according to the data obtained by TEM these oil droplets are unlikely to be oil bodies surrounded by oleosins. Accumulation of FFA pools in the embryo suggested further transport of FFAs from the scutellum. Noticeably high levels of TAG were also accumulated in the embryo but were not synthesized by re-esterification from imported FFAs.

Results: Right-sided endocarditis (15 8%), complicated skin and s

Results: Right-sided endocarditis (15.8%), complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI)wound (15.0%) and bacteremia-catheter-related (14.2%) were the most frequent primary infections; lung (21.7%) was the most common

site for infection. Daptomycin was used empirically in 76 (63.3%) patients, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the most common suspected pathogen (86.1%). 82.5% of the cultures were obtained prior to or shortly after initiation of daptomycin therapy. Staphylococcus spp. -coagulase negative, MRSA, and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were the most frequently identified pathogens (23.8%, 23.8% and 12.5%, respectively). The most common daptomycin dose administered for bacteremia 17-AAG ic50 and cSSTI was 6 mg/kg (30.6%) and 4 mg/kg (51.7%), respectively. The median duration of inpatient daptomycin therapy was 14 days. Most patients (57.1%) did not receive daptomycin while in intensive care unit. Carbapenem (22.5%) was the most commonly used antibiotic concomitantly. The patients showed clinical improvement after two days (median) following the start of daptomycin therapy. The clinical success rate Mizoribine research buy was 80.8% and the overall rate of treatment failure was 10.8%. The main

reasons for daptomycin discontinuation were successful end of therapy (75.8%), switched therapy (11.7%), and treatment failure (4.2%). Daptomycin demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile regardless of treatment duration.

Conclusions: Daptomycin had a relevant role in the treatment of Gram-positive infections in the clinical practice CB-839 setting in Brazil. (C) 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“BCL2 and MYC are oncogenes often deregulated in lymphomas. Concurrent IGH-BCL2 and MYC translocations result in a highly aggressive behavior

of these tumors. Both primary breast lymphoma and lymphoma with concurrent BCL2-IGH and MYC translocations are rare and are primarily seen in adult patients. As a result of limited clinician experience and the condition’s rarity, it poses a great challenge to pediatric pathologists and oncologists in terms of making an accurate diagnosis and choosing better treatment regimens. In this article, we report a case of an adolescent patient who presented with high-grade breast lymphoma with concurrent BCL2-IGH and MYC-IGL translocations, and we review the clinical, pathological, and genetic features; management strategies; and outcomes associated with this unusual neoplasm.”
“High-resolution electrical resistivity rho(T) data of as-prepared and O-2-annealed Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca1.5M1.5Cu4O12-delta (M=0, Be, Mg) superconductor samples have been taken for investigating critically the superconducting fluctuations. Using the Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) and Lawrence-Doniach (LD) models of excess conductivity, several physical parameters of the models have been estimated.

“Vitamin B12 is stored in hepatocytes and inhibits hepatit

“Vitamin B12 is stored in hepatocytes and inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA translation. The implication of B12 in the setting of antiviral treatment is unknown. This study aims to retrospectively evaluate the discriminative efficacy of pretreatment B12 serum levels (s-B12) on end-of-treatment response (ETR) in patients with chronic HCV. Ninety-nine treatment naive HCV patients, treated with interferon and ribavirin were studied. Serum B12 (s-B12) was analysed in samples collected before treatment start. Pretreatment s-B12 levels were correlated

to ETR using univariate analysis. S-B12 and clinical data were evaluated in a multivariate logistic regression model. Mean pretreatment s-B12 was 331 AZD6738 supplier pm in ETR and 260 pm in nonresponders (NR) (P = 0.012). In patients with s-B12 levels < 360 pm, 23 (31.5%) were NR and 50 (68.5%) had ETR. In patients with s-B12 > EPZ004777 in vivo 360 pm, one (3.8%) was NR and 25 (96.2%) had ETR (P = 0.0034). The results of the multivariate analysis were as follows: Pretreatment s-B12 > 360 vs < 360 pm: OR 28.6 CI 2.31-354, P =

0.008. Fibrosis stage 3-4 vs 0-2: OR 0.29 CI 0.074-1.12, P = 0.068. Genotype 2/3 vs 1/4/5: OR 15.5 CI 2.87-83.9, P = 0.0012. Dose reduction vs no dose reduction: OR 0.21, CI 0.048-0.91 P = 0.034. Standard interferon vs pegylated-interferon: OR 0.079, CI 0.0091-0.68 P = 0.019. Age and gender were not correlated to ETR. S-B12 > 360 pm is independently correlated to ETR in HCV patients treated with interferon and ribavirin. This suggests that B12 is involved in suppression of viral replication during anti-HCV treatment.”
“The time domain and electric field dependence of the polarization switching kinetics of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer based check details thin film metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors have been characterized. At room temperature, the time required for complete switching polarization decreases from >1 s to <50 mu s as the voltage is increased from 6 to 12 V, while low nonswitching polarization

is maintained. In the time domain, the ferroelectric switching polarization reversal behavior for devices biased above the coercive field follows the nucleation-limited-switching model. The exponential relationship between switching time and applied electric field indicates nucleation dominated switching kinetics. Switching behavior as a function of temperature was also characterized from -60 to 100 degrees C in the voltage range of 6-12 V. Higher temperatures induce larger dc conductance leakage at low frequencies and increases nonswitching polarization for all the voltages studied. It is demonstrated that for certain frequencies, by controlling the switching voltage, our optimized ferroelectric thin film capacitor shows stable switching polarization in a temperature range compatible with flexible electronics applications. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

Our tools and assays offer cloning flexibility and simple assembl

Our tools and assays offer cloning flexibility and simple assembly of tested ZFNs and their corresponding target sites into Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary plasmids, allowing efficient implementation of ZFN-validation assays in planta.”
“To investigate the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG)

and sustained high glucose (SHG) on inducing beta-cell apoptosis and the potential involved mechanisms, INS-1 beta cells were incubated for 72 h in the medium containing different glucose concentrations: control (5.5 mmol/L), SHG (33.3 Quizartinib nmr mmol/L), and IHG (5.5 mmol/L and 33.3 mmol/L glucose alternating every 12 h). Cell viability, apoptosis rate, and oxidative-stress markers were determined. The results showed that the apoptosis induced by IHG was more obvious than that by SHG. Simultaneously, the intracellular level of oxidative stress was more significantly increased in INS-1 cells exposed to IHG. These findings suggest that intermittent high glucose could be more deleterious to beta-cell than a constant high concentration of glucose, this may be due to the aggravation of oxidative stress triggered by intermittent high

“Background: Differentiation between predominantly Selleck PLX4032 inflammatory versus fibrous-predominant lesions is particularly important in order to decide the optimal therapy in patients with refractory symptoms in Crohn’s disease (CD).

Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of several US parameters, especially of contrast-enhanced US, for evaluation of mural inflammation in CD, with histopathology as the reference.

Materials and methods: Preoperative ultrasound examination, including PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 cell line contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed in 25 consecutive

patients with Crohn’s disease undergoing elective bowel resection. Ultrasound variables, such as wall thickness, transmural complications, colour Doppler grade, quantitative analysis of the enhancement and the presence and severity of strictures, were prospectively evaluated and compared with the histopathology results. Histopathology grading of acute inflammation using the acute inflammatory score and the degree of fibrostenosis was performed in each segment and the results were compared with all the US variables as well as with a previously defined ultrasound score system for inflammatory and fibrostenotic changes.

Results: 28 segments were analysed. In pathology analysis there were 12 predominantly inflammatory segments, 9 predominantly fibrostenotic and 7 compound lesions. When the pathology score was dichotomised into two groups (inflammatory and fibrostenotic) the number of stenoses correctly classified by US was 23 out 28, with a substantial agreement (kappa= 0.632). There was a good correlation between the sonographic and pathology scores, both inflammation (Spearman’s, r=0.53) and fibrostenosis (Spearman’s, r=0.50).

The bon1-1 and bir1-1

The bon1-1 and bir1-1 YM155 datasheet phenotypes are partially suppressed by overexpression of BIR1 and BON1, respectively. Furthermore, the bir1 phenotype is attenuated by a loss-of-function mutation in the resistance (R) gene SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), which mediates defense

responses in bon1. Intriguingly, BON1 and BIR1 can be phosphorylated by BAK1 in vitro. Our findings suggest that BIR1 functions as a negative regulator of plant resistance and that BON1 and BIR1 might modulate both PAMP-and R protein-triggered immune responses.”
“Obesity is often associated with an atherogenic dyslipidemia such as high LDL levels, low HDL levels and hypertriglyceridemia. The noninterventional treatment of obesity by lifestyle modification and pharmacological intervention results in moderate weight loss

and is mostly unsatisfactory with respect to long-term success. Bariatric surgery, by contrast, results in profound and long-term weight loss. Several studies report higher HDL-C levels and lower levels of LDL-C and triglycerides, and a less atherogenic composition of the respective lipoproteins following bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. In addition, structural and functional markers for early atherosclerosis such as flow-mediated dilation and carotid artery intima media thickness improve. Most studies found a greater efficiency with respect to PI3K inhibitor weight loss and resolution of comorbidities after malabsorptive Metabolism inhibitor and combination operations compared with restrictive operations, although the former led to more serious surgical and nutritional complications.”
“The Malleefowl is a ground-dwelling bird species that has declined in distribution and abundance in Australia since European settlement. These declines have been exacerbated in the Western Australian wheatbelt by the extensive clearing of native vegetation for agricultural development. A wealth of opportunistic, presence-only data exists for this species but absence data required for distribution modelling is lacking.

This situation is typical of many species distribution datasets. We sought to establish the distribution of malleefowl within the Western Australian wheatbelt (210000 km(2)) and their choice of habitat within this broad region. We supplemented a large presence-only dataset of malleefowl sightings with absence data derived from a bird atlas scheme and used these data to effectively predict the distribution of the species for the wheatbelt using a combined GAM/GLM approach. Both datasets were derived largely from community sightings. The distribution of malleefowl within the Western Australian wheatbelt was associated with landscapes that had lower rainfall, greater amounts of mallee and shrubland that occur as large remnants, and, lighter soil surface textures.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates the acute inflammatory respons

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates the acute inflammatory response and induces inflammatory mediators. Genistein has an anti-inflammation activity, however, whether genistein inhibits vascular permeability using the same signaling pathways at different development stages in chick embryos is unclear. Inflammatory processes in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) after LPS and genistein treatments at different immune stages were investigated. Genistein suppresses LPS-induced vascular permeability in chick embryos at the immature stage.

RTPCR and western blotting were performed for LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways in the CAM. The LPS-induced TLR4 pathways are attenuated by genistein. Different inflammation mechanisms in TLR4 pathways NU7441 are shown in embryos in the immature stage. Genistein probably inhibits the LPS-induced inflammatory response through different signaling pathways and has a strong therapeutic potential associated with inflammation-induced vascular permeability in chick embryos with immature immune capacities.”
“The Selleck EPZ015938 present study aims to characterize the women

diagnosed with synchronous primary gynecological tumors with an emphasis on risk factors.

A total of 21 patients were identified with synchronous primary gynecological tumors between 2000 and 2006. Demographic, clinical and pathologic data were obtained from medical records and pathology reports.

The majority of the study population (52.4%) was diagnosed with independent primary endometrial and ovarian tumors. The most common presenting

symptoms were pelvic pain and abnormal vaginal bleeding. Tobacco use was significantly more frequent in women with synchronous cervical-ovarian Tanespimycin supplier tumors. There was no statistically significant difference in exogenous hormone use among patients with different synchronous tumors. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were significantly more frequent in women with endometrial-ovarian tumors. Although the women with synchronous cervical-ovarian tumors were significantly younger and leaner, they had shorter survival periods.

Synchronous primary gynecologic tumors are usually detected in relatively older, overweight, multiparous and postmenopausal women with personal history of diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Synchronous primary tumors of endometrium and ovary are supposed to have better prognosis as they are diagnosed at early stage and low grade.”
“Two-dimensional (2D) subwavelength imaging using a near-field antenna array probe is demonstrated experimentally at a probe-to-object separation distance of lambda/4. Field perturbations caused by the presence of small objects are detected by monitoring the input reflection coefficient as the probe is scanned. The probe is designed to produce a subwavelength focal spot with a 0.217 lambda full-width half-maximum beam width.

“Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze th

“Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of different additives glycerol level (X1) and plasticizer level (X2) on the objective Selleck CHIR98014 (water solubility index, water absorption index, and Max. loading) attributes of a cornstarch/PHBV blended composite. A rotatable central-composite design (CCD) was used to develop models for the objective responses. The experiments were run at barrels temperatures 160, 160, 165, and

165 degrees C, respectively, with screw speed 40 rpm and complete feeding (filling ratio – 1). Responses were most affected by changes in plasticizer level (X2) and to a lesser extent by glycerol level (X1). Individual contour plots of the different responses were overlaid, and regions meeting the predicted optimum water solubility index of 4.34%, water absorption index of 4.55 g gel/g dry wt, and Max. loading of 370.06 N were identified at the plasticizer level of 21.06 g, and the glycerol level of 96.11 mL, respectively. These predicted values for optimum process conditions were in good agreement selleck inhibitor with experimental data. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 1797-1804, 2011″
“Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon but distinctive clinical-radiologic entity characterized by headache, seizures, visual disturbance, and altered mental function associated with reversible white

matter edema affecting the posterior parietal and occipital lobes of the brain. Although

PRES is caused by a variety of conditions, acute elevation of blood pressure, fluid retention, and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and/or anti-neoplastic agents are the main causes. A few cases of PRES associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children have been reported. Early recognition of PRES and appropriate management are needed to reduce the risk of permanent neurologic disability. The authors report a case of PRES in a girl who received an HLA-identical sibling bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome to emphasize the importance of early recognition and institution of appropriate management of PRES during HSCT.</.”
“Study Design. Case report.

Objective. To demonstrate that interferon alfa-2b is a therapeutic option for obtaining long-term control of recurrent and metastatic giant cell tumor of spine.

Summary of Background BLZ945 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor Data. Interferon alfa served as angiogenesis inhibitor and has been successfully used to treat giant cell tumor of long bones and facial bones. Up to date, no report is found with regard to the use of interferon as a stand-alone treatment for unresectable, recurrent, and metastatic giant cell tumor originated from the spine.

Methods. A 29-year-old woman with C1 and C2 giant cell tumor was treated by radiotherapy, intralesional curet, and chemotherapy orderly. Tumor recurred after 2 years. A second curet was undertaken. Tumor recurred second time and caused severe spinal cord compression.

Additional LD was detected between chromosomes 3 and 4, 3 and 11,

Additional LD was detected between chromosomes 3 and 4, 3 and 11, and 4 and 6 in fresh market varieties and chromosomes 3 and 12 in processing varieties. These results suggest that breeding practices for market specialization in tomato have led to a genetic divergence between fresh market and processing types.”
“Antibiotic use in the treatment of respiratory tract infections

is common in primary care. The European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC programme), collecting data from 35 countries, showed that antibiotic use was highest in southern European countries. Increased antibiotic consumption has been shown by numerous ecological studies to contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in streptococci. A study comparing outpatient antibiotic consumption in the USA showed it to be similar to that in southern European countries, but macrolides, particularly azithromycin, are among the first-line agents prescribed in the see more USA for respiratory infections. In Europe, patients are more likely to receive a beta-lactam; and when a macrolide is indicated, clarithromycin is more likely to be prescribed than azithromycin. Streptococci resistance to macrolides can be acquired via two mechanisms: by the mef gene, which encodes for the efflux pump mechanism, producing low to moderate

resistance, or the erm gene (post-transcriptional modification of the bacterial ribosomal unit), resulting selleck screening library in high resistance. Macrolide resistance is mediated by erm(B) and mef(A) alone or in combination. A surveillance study showed that mef was responsible for most of the macrolide resistance seen in the USA; a decrease in the number of isolates carrying mef(A) was associated with a doubling of the number of isolates carrying both mef(A) and erm(B). Higher consumption

of clarithromycin in Europe correlated with a predominance of erm(B)-carrying Streptococcus pneumoniae. The erm(B) gene caused resistance in 84% of the isolates in Europe.”
“The ectopic expression of a MADS box gene FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) caused a significant delay of senescence and a deficiency XL184 datasheet of abscission in flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis. The defect in floral abscission was found to be due to a deficiency in the timing of cell separation of the abscission zone cells. Downregulation of INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) may contribute to the delay of the floral abscission in 35S:FYF flowers. FYF was found to be highly expressed in young flowers prior to pollination and was significantly decreased after pollination, a pattern that correlated with its function. Ethylene insensitivity in senescence/abscission and the down-regulation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE DNA-BINDING FACTOR 1 (EDF1) and EDF2, downstream genes in the ethylene response, in 35S: FYF Arabidopsis suggested a role for FYF in regulating senescence/abscission by suppressing the ethylene response.

TH remains an experimental clinical approach and randomized multi

TH remains an experimental clinical approach and randomized multicenter trials are needed to critically evaluate this potentially exciting therapeutic intervention targeting this patient population.”
“Critical care has evolved from treatment of poliomyelitis victims with respiratory failure in an intensive care unit to treatment of severely ill patients irrespective of location or specific technology. Population-based studies in the developed world suggest that the burden of critical illness is higher than generally appreciated and will increase as the population ages. Critical care capacity has long been needed in the developing world, and efforts to improve the care of the critically

ill in these selleck chemicals llc settings are starting to occur. Expansion of critical care to handle the consequences of an ageing population, natural disasters, conflict, inadequate primary care, and higher-risk medical therapies will be challenged by high costs at a time of economic constraint. To meet this challenge, investigators in this discipline will need to measure the global burden of critical illness and available critical-care resources, and develop both

preventive and therapeutic interventions that are generalisable across countries.”
“Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by secondary degeneration, which leads to tissue loss at the epicenter and subsequent functional deficits. This review provides Citarinostat chemical structure insight into the pathophysiology of microvascular dysfunction and endothelial cell loss, which are among the earliest responses during the first postinjury day. The enigmatic role of the angiogenic response in the penumbra around the lost tissue, which occurs during the first 2 weeks, is also discussed. The importance of stabilizing and rescuing the injured vasculature is now well-recognized, and several pharmacological and genetic treatments have emerged in the past few years. We conclude with suggestions for future experimental research, including

development of vascular-selective treatments and exploitation of genetic models. In summary, vascular dysfunction following learn more SCI is an important contributor to neurological deficits, as proposed long ago. However, there now appears to be new and potentially powerful opportunities for treating acute SCI by targeting the vascular responses.”
“The intensive care unit (ICU) is where patients are given some of the most technologically advanced life-sustaining treatments, and where difficult decisions are made about the usefulness of such treatments. The substantial regional variability in these ethical decisions is a result of many factors, including religious and cultural beliefs. Because most critically ill patients lack the capacity to make decisions, family and other individuals often act as the surrogate decision makers, and in many regions communication between the clinician and family is central to decision making in the ICU.