The sensitivity to these factors and to measurement error is anal

The sensitivity to these factors and to measurement error is analysed and ways to obtain the most reliable g(m) values are discussed. Small leaf areas can best be measured using one of the fluorescence methods.

When larger leaf areas can be measured in larger chambers, the online isotopic methods are preferred. Using the large CO2 draw-down provided by big chambers, and the isotopic method, is particularly important when measuring leaves with high g(m) that have a small difference in [CO2] between the substomatal cavity and the site of carboxylation in the chloroplast (C-i-C-c gradient). However, equipment for the fluorescence methods is more easily accessible. Carbon isotope discrimination can also be measured in recently synthesized carbohydrates, which has its advantages under field conditions when large number of samples must be processed. The curve-fitting method that uses gas exchange measurements only is not preferred SBE-β-CD and should only be used when buy SNX-5422 no alternative is available. Since all methods have their weaknesses, the use of two methods for the estimation of g(m), which are as independent as possible, is recommended.”
“Bovine peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP-1), an important pattern recognition molecule (PRM) of the innate immune system, is an effector molecule in killing different microorganisms directly. To investigate whether the PGLYRP-1 gene was associated

with mastitis DZNeP and milk production traits in dairy cattle, the polymorphism of this gene was analyzed by PCR-RFLP in a population of 524 Chinese Holstein. A total of ten single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) lad were identified. The association analysis of single SNP locus showed that T – 35A, T – 12G and G + 102C were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with somatic

cell score (SCS), while G + 102C and G + 649C were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with 305-day milk yield. Association analysis between combined haplotypes and SCS, milk production traits indicated that H3H3 was associated with the lower SCS (P < 0.01), and H2H2 was associated with the lower 305-day milk yield (P < 0.01). These findings demonstrated that polymorphisms in PGLYRP-1 gene associated with mastitis resistance and 305-day milk yield, and the H3H3 would provide a useful genetic marker of combined haplotypes for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Recent advances in novel medical gases, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO), have demonstrated significant opportunities for therapeutic use. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of inhaled hydrogen or CO, or both, on cold ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the myocardium.

METHODS: Syngeneic heterotopic heart transplantation was performed in rats after 6 or 18 hours of cold ischemia in Celsior solution.

The levels of MGP mRNA expression were quantified using


The levels of MGP mRNA expression were quantified using

real-time find more PCR (RT-PCR), and the levels of protein expression were characterized by Western blot. Results: MGP was expressed rapidly and intensively following exposure to COM and was time-dependent with exposure to oxalate. Conclusion: Our results have given a profile of MGP expression in renal tubular epithelial cells exposed to oxalate and crystals and provided support for an association between MGP and kidney stones. Further investigations on the mechanism of the MGP in the process of crystal-cell interaction may be important in the future. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Purpose: To compare the pattern of protein-expression profiles in blood-plasma after exposure of CBA/CaJ mice to 0 or 3 Gy of Cs-137 gamma rays.

Materials and methods: Two-dimensional electrophoresis gel coupled with mass spectrometry was used to analyze blood-samples collected at days 2 and 7 post-irradiation. At each sacrifice-time,

alterations in expression-level of protein spots between control- and exposed-groups were analyzed statistically by the PDQuest software using Student’s t-test (at the significance level of p<0.05). Mass spectrometry was used to identify the identity of protein-spots with significantly altered expression-level.

Results: At day 2, 18 proteins were significantly up-regulated in exposed-mice. AZD2014 These included: alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid (HS)-glycoprotein, apolipoprotein (Apo)-AII-precursor, Apo-E, beta-2-glycoprotein-I, clusterin, fibrinogen-alpha-chain, fibrinogen-gamma-polypeptide, fetuin-B, haptoglobin, high-molecular-weight (HMW)-kininogen (Kng), low-MW-Kng, Kng1-precursor, selleck chemicals liver-carboxylesterase-I-precursor, major-urinary-protein-6-precursor, mannose-binding-protein-C-precursor,

mannose-binding-lectin-C, and prothrombin-precursor. Gelsolin was detected in control- mice only. At day 7, high expression-levels of 14 proteins were detected in control-mice (i.e., alpha-1-antitrypsin-precursor, carboxylesterase-N, cholesterol-7-alpha-hydroxylase, contraspin, coagulation-factor-II, coagulation-factor-XIII, gelsolin, immunoglobulin-Gheavy-chain, neurexin, prothrombin-precursor, protein-phosphatase, putative-calcium-influx-channel, vitamin-D-binding-protein, and 1110018G07Rik); while 15 proteins were highly expressed in exposed-mice. These included: alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, alpha-1-protease-inhibitor-2, ApoA-IV, ApoC-I, ApoH, beta-1-globin, clusterin, complement-component-3, fibrinogen-beta-chain, HMW-Kng, major-histocompatibility-complex-class-Ia-H2-K, serine(cysteine)-proteinase-inhibitor, retinoblastoma-associated-protein-140, and vascular-cell-adhesion-molecule-1.

“This study reports on the determination of the optical co

“This study reports on the determination of the optical constants of a lead-free ferroelectric material, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3. The optical transmission Selleck AZD8055 measurements were carried out in the 300-3000 nm wavelength range, on a (100)-oriented Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 thin film, epitaxially grown by laser ablation on a (100) MgO single crystal substrate. Applying the “”method of the envelopes,”" developed by Manifacier et al. [J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976)] and by Swanepoel [J. Phys. E 16, 1214 (1983)], the analysis of the observed interference fringes allowed extracting some optical data for Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, namely the linear refractive and extinction indices n and k, the absorption coefficient alpha,

and as well the nature (direct or indirect transition) and value of the optical band gap. It was found that n(infinity) = 2.321 and the transmission data suggested a 3.30 eV indirect transition. Our experimental results

are thus in opposition to the few data reported so far for Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, find more where a direct transition was evoked. Therefore, we have confronted the optical transmission data to supplementary diffuse reflectance and ellipsometry measurements, and finally, to first principles calculations. The diffuse reflectance data, collected for Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 powders, indicate a 3.26 eV optical band gap. In addition, the ellipsometry measurements reveal a refractive index of 2.346 at 2.066 mu m, an energy gap of similar to 3.20 eV, and also confirm the thickness of the layer. These additional data are then in very good agreement with the data derived from the optical transmission measurements. Finally, first principles calculations were carried

out in the framework of the density functional theory for the three Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 polymorphs (i.e., rhombohedral, tetragonal, and cubic). For each polymorph, in order to consider the Na/Bi disorder on the perovskite A-site, three different Na/Bi distributions within the unit cell were investigated, leading to nine atomic configurations. The electronic structure of these nine configurations was then calculated after geometry optimization and only one of them did Entinostat not converge. These calculations complete the above experimental data, as six electronic structures over eight presented an indirect band gap, with a band gap energy E-g falling in the 3.90-4.60 eV energy range. The latter value is higher than the experimental ones but is definitely more compatible with the energy band gap expected for ferroelectric oxide materials. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3400095]“
“The effect of deforestation and the introduction of exotic grasses on the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus in northern Argentina was analysed. Biological parameters that were measured included proportion of females ovipositing, pre-oviposition period, incubation period of eggs, proportion of egg clusters hatching, larval longevity and total non-parasitic period.

We investigated the Dark Agouti-to-Lewis (DA-to-Lew) rat model of

We investigated the Dark Agouti-to-Lewis (DA-to-Lew) rat model of acute cardiac allograft rejection. Cylosporine (CsA) (7.5 mg/kg/d) was given from transplantation to sacrifice (day +5). At that time, mRNA levels were analysed by Affymetrix genechip

and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MMP protein and activities were analysed by immunohistology, fluorometry, zymography and Western blots.

In untreated rejected DA allografts, mRNA levels of MMP-2/-7/-9/-12-/14, a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)-17, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease (TIMP)-1/-3 were increased, whereas MMP-11/-16/-24 Sulfobutylether-β-Cyclodextrin and TIMP-2/-4 were lowered compared to native DA hearts. With respect to these untreated allografts, CsA lowered mRNA levels of MMP-7, TIMP-1/-3 (TIMP-2/-4 4 remained relatively low) and ADAM17, but augumented MRNA levels of MMP-11/-16/-23 and of many ECM genes. Immunohistology showed in staining of MMP-2 in acute rejection (AR). Overall MMP activity was augumented both transplanted groups, hut CsA reduced MMP-9 acitivity and MMP-14 production.

Taken together, MMP and TIMP were up-regulated during acute AR. CsA ameliorated histology of rejection but showed potential pro-fibrotic effects. Thus, ACMP and TIMP may play a role in acute cardiac allograft rejection, and beneficial modification

of the MMP-ECM balance requires interventions beyond CsA.”
“The angular dependence of the x-ray fluorescence from Y and Z-DEVD-FMK Mn inner K shell ionization induced by a grazing angle incident electron beam in several multilayered Y/Mn structures was analyzed using the distorted-wave approximation. Estimates of structural parameters,

thickness, and interfacial roughness were obtained from the x-ray fluorescence measured in the total reflection regime and compared with ex situ x-ray reflectivity results. Although the sensitivity to the surface and interface roughness was relatively low, the thickness values for both single and buried AS1842856 price layers were in good agreement with the x-ray reflectivity measurements. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3177346]“
“Background: In recent years, numerous scientific publications have endorsed the superiority of the ProSeal (TM) laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) over the Classic (TM) laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) in adults, children, and infants. The PLMA forms a better seal for both the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, provides easier access to the gastrointestinal tract, and exerts lower mucosal pressures for a given seal pressure. This study aims to determine whether this superiority can also be observed for the size 1 PLMA used in anesthetized neonates and infants with positive pressure ventilation.

Methods: Sixty consecutive neonates and infants undergoing elective surgical procedures were randomized to airway management with the size 1 PLMA or cLMA.

5 mm, a wall thickness of about 45 mu m, and a geometric compress

5 mm, a wall thickness of about 45 mu m, and a geometric compression ratio of about 6.0. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals,

Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 2835-2842, 2011″
“Background: The interaction of nutrients Selleck FK506 with the small intestine modulates gastropyloroduodenal motility, stimulates the release of gut hormones, and suppresses appetite and energy intake.

Objective: We evaluated which, if any, of these variables are independent determinants of acute energy intake in healthy, lean men.

Design: We pooled data from 8 published studies that involved a total of 67 healthy, lean men in whom antropyloroduodenal pressures, gastrointestinal hormones, and perceptions were measured during intraduodenal nutrient or intravenous hormone infusions. In all of the studies, the energy intake at a buffet lunch was quantified immediately after the infusions. To select

specific motor, hormone, or perception variables for inclusion in a multivariable mixed-effects model for determination of independent predictors of energy intake, we assessed all variables for collinearity and determined within-subject correlations between energy intake and these variables by using bivariate analyses adjusted for repeated measures.

Results: Although correlations were shown between energy intake and antropyloroduodenal pressures, GSK1838705A molecular weight plasma hormone concentrations, and gastrointestinal perceptions, only the peak number of isolated pyloric-pressure waves, peak plasma cholecystokinin concentration, and area under the curve of nausea were identified as independent predictors of energy intake (all P < 0.05), so that increases of 1 pressure wave, 1 pmol/L, and 1 mm . min were associated with reductions in energy intake of approximate to

36, approximate to 88, and approximate to’0.4, respectively.

Conclusion: We identified specific changes in gastrointestinal motor and hormone functions (ie, stimulation of pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin) and nausea that are associated with the suppression of acute energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 61-8.”
“Existing research on the mechanism of frequency bands in phononic crystals were without exception concerned with the band gaps (stop-bands). This paper reports, for the first time, the formation mechanism of the Selleck S3I-201 band structures, including both the phase constant and the attenuation constant spectra, of longitudinal waves in one-dimensional phononic crystals based on the periodic ternary rod model. Closed-form dispersion relation is obtained by our proposed method of reverberation-ray matrix. The band structures of characteristic longitudinal wave in the infinite one-dimensional phononic crystal are found to be generated from the dispersion curves of equivalent longitudinal wave in the unit cell due to zone folding effect and wave interference phenomenon.

Summary of Background Data Limited evidence on complications in

Summary of Background Data. Limited evidence on complications in double-level X-Stop surgery is available.

Methods. Three men, 47, 63, and 75 years old, respectively, underwent surgery with insertion

of X-Stop at L3-L4 and L4-L5 because of low back pain and neurogenic claudication due to degenerative lumbar spine conditions. Two 10 mm devices were implanted in the first patient and two 16 mm distractors in the second man. One 10 mm X-Stop at L3-L4 and one 12 mm at L4-L5, respectively, were implanted in the third patient. No intraoperative complications occurred and the postoperative course was uneventful, with symptoms relief.

Results. The first 2 patients presented because of recurrent symptoms 4 and 6 months after surgery, respectively. Imaging revealed “”spontaneous”" fracture of the L4 SP in both of them. Revision surgery MK-4827 concentration was required, with removal of the interspinous devices, decompression and fixation. In the third patient the L4 SP fracture was detected when this website the patient presented because of recurrent back pain 18 months after the index surgery, but revision surgery was not consented.

Conclusion. To our knowledge this is the first

report describing the “”sandwich phenomenon,”" i.e., the atraumatic fracture of the intervening SP in patients with adjacent, double-level X-Stop. Possible underlying theories and anatomic peculiarities which may predispose to this rare event are discussed.”
“A reduction in fatty acid ( FA) oxidation has been associated with lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. Numerous reports suggest that the reduction in FA oxidation may result from intrinsic mitochondrial defects, although little direct evidence has been offered Quizartinib to support this conclusion. This brief review summarizes recent

work from our laboratory that reexamined whether this decrease in skeletal muscle FA oxidation with obesity was attributable to a dysfunction in FA oxidation within mitochondria or simply to a reduction in muscle mitochondrial content. Whole-muscle mitochondrial content and FA oxidation was reduced in the obese, but there was no decrease in the ability of isolated mitochondria to oxidize FA. The mitochondrial content of the transport protein, FA translocase ( FAT/CD36), did not differ between lean and obese women but was correlated with mitochondrial FA oxidation. It was concluded that the reduced FA oxidation in obesity is attributable to decreased muscle mitochondrial content and not intrinsic defects in mitochondrial FA oxidation, and that mitochondrial FAT/CD36 is involved in regulating FA oxidation in human skeletal muscle. The reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial content with obesity may result from impaired mitochondrial biogenesis.

We recruited 30 patients between 18 and 80 years who were started

We recruited 30 patients between 18 and 80 years who were started on aspirin and clopidogrel following percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents. We hypothesized that the 3 months of dual antiplatelet therapy would be associated with frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic abnormalities. Patients

were followed with weekly phone calls to inquire about the new gastrointestinal symptoms and after click here a minimum of 80 days, their upper gastrointestinal mucosa Was Visualized with PillCam ESO (R) wireless capsule endoscopy. 18 (90%) of the 20 Successful wireless capsule endoscopies revealed at least I type of gastrointestinal mucosal lesion. Gastric erosions (n = 14, 70%) were the most common abnormality. We believe this is the first noninvasive endoscopic study of gastrointestinal

complications of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents. Future studies should expand on our observations to determine whether prophylaxis with proton pump inhibitors is warranted.”
“Background: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and predicts outcomes. The chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder contributes to low BMD in ESRD; however, the impact of classical risk factors for osteoporosis in the general population, such as body weight and fat mass, remains less well defined in ESRD subjects.

Methods: BMD, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), nutritional status (subjective global assessment), hand grip strength and multiple biomarkers were investigated in 361 patients (218 males; 60.4%) starting on dialysis. The relations between BMD, body composition and biomarkers were analyzed at baseline, and the impact of BMD on mortality was analyzed prospectively.

Results: In univariate analysis, T-score VX-809 research buy correlated with fat mass (r = 0.308,

p<0.001), lean body mass (r = 0.278, p<0.001), leptin (r = 0.124, p = 0.028) as well as the anabolic marker insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; r = 0.301, p<0.001), and its binding proteins IGFBP-1 (r = -0.342, p<0.001) and IGFBP-3 (0.231, p<0.001). BMD T-score was independently associated with age, total fat mass, intact parathyroid hormone and presence of wasting. During 5 years of follow-up, 87 deaths were recorded. Each unit of increase of T-score was associated with decreased all-cause mortality, which persisted after multivariate adjustment (hazard ratio = 0.824, 95% confidence interval, 0.681-0.996).

Conclusions: BMD is associated with body composition, especially total fat mass, nutritional status and mortality risk in ESRD patients.”

We aimed to review the pain management in 100 episodes of severe mucositis in children and determine the incidence of associated side effects.

The material was mucin, as it stained positively with alcian blue

The material was mucin, as it stained positively with alcian blue at pH 2.5. The thyroid profile was normal, and there was no evidence for lupus erythematous. The lesions were treated with electrofulguration and resolved leaving mild scars; there has been no recurrence at follow-up after one year. We also review the literature on this rare form of mucinosis.”
“Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and are used as antimicrobial preservatives in a range of consumer products, including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Despite their widespread use, prior to this study,

paraben concentrations in foodstuffs from China and human dietary exposure to these chemicals have been unknown. In this study, concentrations of six parabens were determined in 13 categories

of food samples (n = 282), including cereals and cereal products, selleck chemical meat, fish and seafood, eggs, dairy Autophagy Compound Library high throughput products, bean products, fruits, vegetables, cookies, beverages, cooking oils, condiments, and others, collected from nine cities in China. Almost all (detection rate: 99%) food samples contained at least one of the parabens analyzed, and the total concentrations (Sigma Parabens; sum of six parabens) ranged from below limit of quantification (LOQ) to 2530 ng/g fresh weight, with an overall mean value of 39.3 ng/g. Methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), and propyl paraben (PrP) were the major paraben analogs found in foodstuffs, and these YH25448 research buy compounds accounted for 59%, 24%, and 10%, respectively, of Sigma Paraben concentrations. Although the mean concentrations of Sigma Parabens varied among different categories of food items (from 0.839 ng/g in beverages to 100 ng/g in vegetables), the concentrations were not statistically significant among the

13 food categories, including canned foodstuffs. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of parabens was based on the measured concentrations in foods and the corresponding daily food ingestion rates. The mean and 95th percentile values for EDI were 1010 and 3040 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day for adult men and 1060 and 3170 ng/kg bw/day for adult women, respectively. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Plant immune responses to pathogens are often associated with enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), known as the oxidative burst, and with rapid hypersensitive host cell death (the hypersensitive response, HR) at sites of attempted infection. It is generally accepted that the oxidative burst acts as a promotive signal for HR, and that HR is highly correlated with efficient disease resistance. We have identified the Arabidopsis mutant rph1 (resistance to Phytophthora 1), which is susceptible to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora brassicae despite rapid induction of HR. The susceptibility of rph1 was specific for P. brassicae and coincided with a reduced oxidative burst, a runaway cell-death response, and failure to properly activate the expression of defence-related genes.

6 days There was no significant difference in procedure type bas

6 days. There was no significant difference in procedure type based on geographic region or age. The Northeast had the lowest rate

of posterior surgery and highest rate of anterior only procedures. The Midwest had the highest rate of anterior-posterior surgery and Northeast had the lowest. Patients age 10 to 14 had the highest rate of posterior only procedures, those age 20 to 24 had the lowest. Patients age 15 to 19 were more likely to have anterior only procedures. Taken together, anterior-posterior and posterior interbody techniques were most common in patients age 20 to 24. Inpatient hospital charges varied significantly Y-27632 from region to region. Charges were highest in the West ($152,637) and lowest in the South ($103,256). There was no significant difference in PPAC based on age. LOS was significantly highest Selleckchem Ispinesib in the Midwest (6.5 days) and lowest in the South (5.2 days). LOS was significantly higher in the oldest age group compared with the younger groups.

Conclusion. PPAC and LOS varied by region. Although there was no significant difference in treatment type based on age or region, older patients tended to have more complex procedures and a higher LOS. This did not translate into a significant change in PPAC

based on age. These data point to the need for further studies examining reasons for geographic variability in idiopathic scoliosis surgeries.”
“To improve the performance of ion-exchange polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, an electrical pathway material for enhancing the surface adhesion between the membrane click here and the metal electrodes of the IPMC was studied. As an efficient electrical pathway material, polyaniline nanorods (PANI-NRs) doped with p-toluene sulfonic acid (TSA) were synthesized with a template-free method. The factors affecting polyaniline morphology were studied with various dopant concentrations and oxidant feeding rates. Highly conductive PANI-NRs were formed when they were synthesized with ammonium persulfate at a 5.0 mL/min oxidant feeding rate and doped with 0.125M TSA. The conductivity

of the PANI-NRs was 1.15 x 10(-1) S/cm, and their diameters and lengths were 120-180 nm and 0.6-2 mu m, respectively. To apply the membrane as an actuator, perfluorosulfonated ionomer (Nafion)/PANI-NR blends were prepared by solution blending and casting. The actuating ability of the three-layered membrane consisting of Nafion/PANI-NR blends was then examined and compared with that of Nafion only. The actuating ability of the IPMC was improved when Nafion/PANI-NRs were used as electrical pathways. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 2601-2609, 2010″
“The objective of the study was to validate the Spanish version of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP). An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out on patients with epilepsy treated with a stable dose of antiepileptic drugs.

We investigated the effects of GSK1016790A (GSK) and RN1734, a TR

We investigated the effects of GSK1016790A (GSK) and RN1734, a TRPV4

agonist and antagonist, respectively, and P2X-purinoceptor antagonists (TNP-ATP and PPADS) on cystometry (CMG), and the effect of GSK on single afferent fiber activities (SAAs) of the rat bladder and its relationship with capsaicin (Cap)-sensitivity. Methods: Conscious female ubiquitin-Proteasome pathway Sprague-Dawley rats were used for CMG measurements. In SAA measurements, under urethane anesthesia, SAA was identified by electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve and by bladder distention. Cystometric parameters were measured before and after intravesical drug instillation. In SAA measurements, response with saline instillation served as baseline. Then, GSK was instilled three

times, and finally Cap was instilled to investigate the relationship with Capsensitivity. Results: Intravesical GSK-instillation transiently decreased bladder capacity and voided volume, which were counteracted by RN1734, TNP-ATP, and PPADS. In SAA measurements, selleck screening library Ad-fibers (n = 7) were not affected by either GSK or Cap. Based on the Cap-sensitivity, C-fibers could be divided into two subtypes: Cap-insensitive (n = 14) and Cap-sensitive (n = 8). In the Cap-insensitive C-fibers, GSK significantly increased the SAAs during the first instillation, but the increase attenuated with time, whereas GSK did not significantly affect the Cap-sensitive C-fibers. Conclusions: The present results suggest that activation of TRPV4 in the bladder, probably urothelium, facilitates the Selleck Ion Channel Ligand Library micturition reflex by activation of the mechanosensitive, Cap-insensitive C-fibers of the primary bladder afferents in rats. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31: 148-155, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Chronic back pain and its sequelae can influence cognitive, affective, and neuromuscular functioning. Speech production-a complex

sensorimotor activity-integrates shared cognitive, neuromuscular, and musculoskeletal resources, and therefore could be altered by chronic pain. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was twofold: 1) to determine whether speech alternating motion rates (i.e., speech AMRs) which require rapid, reciprocally coordinated articulatory movements were associated with chronic back pain; and 2) to identify factors that might mediate any observed alterations.

Fifty participants, fully or partially disabled by chronic back pain, completed standardized protocols related to pain, depression, disability, medications, as well as speech AMRs.

Higher levels of back pain were significantly associated with slower speech AMRs. Stepwise multiple regression assessed the unique and cumulative effects of specific variables such as degree of back pain, depression, level of disability, and medication use on speech motor performance. Speech motor slowness was uniquely related to back pain and the use of nonprescription pain medications, but not to level of depression or disability.