If the ABC method is performed in the mass screening for gastric<

If the ABC method is performed in the mass screening for gastric

cancer in this population, a large number of subjects will be identified for further examinations. The applicability of the ABC method should be evaluated before use in the screening for gastric cancer, particularly in an aging population with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis.”
“Background: When used as a pretreatment, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) either attenuated or aggravated lung injury. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether posttreatment intravenous Na(2)S (sulfide) may attenuate lung injury.

Methods: After blast wave blunt chest trauma or sham procedure, anesthetized and instrumented mice received continuous intravenous sulfide or vehicle while being kept at 37 degrees C or 32 degrees C core temperature. After 4 hours of pressure-controlled, thoracopulmonary compliance-titrated, lung-protective mechanical ventilation, blood and tissue were harvested Compound Library for cytokine concentrations, heme oxygenase-1, I kappa B alpha, Bcl-Xl, and pBad expression (western blotting), nuclear factor-kappa B activation (electrophoretic mobility shift assay), and activated caspase-3, cystathionine-beta synthase and cystathionine-gamma lyase (immunohistochemistry).

Results: Hypothermia caused marked bradycardia and metabolic

acidosis unaltered by sulfide. Chest trauma impaired thoracopulmonary compliance and arterial PO(2), again without sulfide effect. Cytokine levels showed inconsistent response. Sulfide increased nuclear factor-kappa B activation Selleckchem LOXO-101 during normothermia, but this effect was blunted during hypothermia. While histologic lung injury was variable, both sulfide and hypothermia attenuated the trauma-related increase in heme oxygenase-1 expression and activated caspase-3 staining, which coincided with increased Bad phosphorylation and Bcl-Xl expression. see more Sulfide and hypothermia also attenuated the trauma-induced cystathionine-beta synthase and cystathionine-gamma lyase expression.


Posttreatment sulfide infusion after blunt chest trauma did not affect the impaired lung mechanics and gas exchange but attenuated stress protein expression and apoptotic cell death. This protective effect was amplified by moderate hypothermia. The simultaneous reduction in cystathionine-beta synthase and cystathionine-gamma lyase expression supports the role of H(2)S-generating enzymes as an adaptive response during stress states.”
“We report here the ability of two freshwater living cyanobacteria, Chroococcus multicoloratus Wood and Oscillatoria trichoides Szafer, to remove lead (Pb2+) from aqueous solutions in batch system, wherein the effect of Pb2+ on the growth rate of both the cyanobacteria was evaluated. The influence of sorption time, initial pH, initial Pb2+ ion concentration, culture density and the biosorption equilibrium kinetics was examined. Biosorption capacity was found to be maximum between a pH of 5 and 5.

“Study Design In vitro and in vivo studies to assess the

“Study Design. In vitro and in vivo studies to assess the effect of direct anular repair on subsequent degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs).

Objective. To assess whether Dorsomorphin purchase a new suturing method could provide sealing effect on IVD after discectomy, and influence degenerative process of IVD.

Summary of Background Data. Recurrent disc herniation and subsequent

disc degeneration are major problems after discectomy. Anular repair can reduce the risk of recurrence, but its effect on disc degeneration needs more investigation.

Methods. A new suturing technique, the modified purse-string suture (MPSS), was designed for direct closure of anular incision. Intact motion segments of porcine lumbar spine were used to validate this technique in resisting disc pressure under mechanical loadings. A transverse slit incision was made in the anterior anulus of porcine cervical discs, with or without sealing of the anular defect by this suturing method. Magnetic resonance imaging grading was recorded before and after Screening Library research buy surgery. Anular healing was assessed histologically and gene expression of aggrecan, collagen type I, II, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in nucleus pulposus were investigated.

Results. The average failure force of axial compression was 1150.3

+/- 121.1 N for a simple suture, and 2917.9 +/- 627.6 N for a MPSS. Cyclic loading test showed that the repaired discs succeeded against repeated compression forces. Magnetic resonance imaging MG-132 purchase and gross appearances showed lesser degenerative changes in repaired discs than in injured discs at each time period. In repaired discs, mRNA expression of aggrecan and type II collagen downregulated slightly with time, whereas it decreased rapidly and persistently in unrepaired discs. Histologic findings showed primary healing of outer anular tract in repaired discs.

Conclusion. In this pilot study, the MPSS can provide effectively sealing for damaged anulus to withstand stresses. Direct repair of anular incision by this suturing method does significantly

slow down degenerative process within discs after discectomy.”
“The aim of this work was to evaluate capability of site-specific delivery of a transdermal patch through determination of letrozole in local tissues disposition in female mice. After transdermal administration, the letrozole levels in skin, muscle, and plasma were 10.4-49.3 mu g/g, 1.64-6.89 mu g/g, and 0.35-1.64 mu g/mL, respectively. However, after the mice received letrozole suspension, the drug concentration of plasma and muscle were 0.20-4.80 mu g/mL and 0.15-2.38 mu g/g. There was even no drug determined in skin through all experiments. Compared with oral administration, the transdermal patch for site-specific delivery of letrozole could produce high drug concentrations in skin and muscle and meanwhile obtain low drug level in plasma.

The activating enhancer binding protein 2 (AP2) family of transcr

The activating enhancer binding protein 2 (AP2) family of transcription factors is expressed during mammalian development and in certain malignant diseases. This article summarizes the data regarding expression and function of murine Tcfap2 and human TFAP2 in extraembryonic development and differentiation. It also presents a model integrating Tcfap2c into the framework of trophoblast development and highlights the requirement of

Tcfap2c to maintain trophoblast stem cells. With regard to human trophoblast cell-lineage Linsitinib mw restriction, the role of TFAP2C in lineage specification and maintenance is speculated upon. Furthermore, an overview of target genes of AP2 in mouse and human affecting placenta development and function is provided and the evidence suggesting that defects in regulating TFAP2 members might contribute to placental defects is discussed. (C) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Knowledge CDK inhibitor of in vivo glenohumeral joint contact mechanics after total shoulder arthroplasty may provide insight for the improvement of patient function, implant longevity, and surgical technique. The objective of this study was to determine the in vivo glenohumeral joint contact locations in patients after total shoulder arthroplasty. We hypothesized that the glenohumeral joint articular contact would be centered on the glenoid surface because of the ball-in-socket geometric features

of the implants.

Methods: Dual-plane fluoroscopic images and computer-aided design models were used to quantify patient-specific glenohumeral articular contact in thirteen shoulders following total shoulder arthroplasty. The reconstructed shoulder was imaged at arm positions of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees of abduction (in the coronal plane) and neutral rotation and at 90 degrees of abduction with maximum internal and external rotation. The patients were individually investigated, and their glenohumeral joint contact centroids were STA-9090 in vitro reported with use of contact frequency.

Results: In all positions, the glenohumeral joint contact centroids were not found at the center of the glenoid surface but at an average distance (and standard deviation) of 11.0 +/- 4.3 mm from the glenoid center. Forty (62%) of the sixty-five total contact occurrences were found on the superior-posterior quadrant of the glenoid surface. The position of 0 degrees of abduction in neutral rotation exhibited the greatest variation of quadrant contact location; however, no contact was found on the superior-anterior quadrant of the glenoid surface in this position.

Conclusions: In vivo, glenohumeral joint contact after total shoulder arthroplasty is not centered on the glenoid surface, suggesting that kinematics after shoulder arthroplasty may not be governed by ball-in-socket mechanics as traditionally thought.

Systematic studies of the current versus voltage

and ligh

Systematic studies of the current versus voltage

and light-emitting behavior of the OLEDs have identified different excitation processes for the two dyes. It is suggested that electroluminescence from the FIrpic molecules originates by direct transfer of the exciton energy from the PVK to the dye molecules, while the process of light emission from the Ir(piq)(2)(acac) molecules involves carrier trapping. The efficiency of the devices can be tuned, to some extent, by varying the thickness of the organic film. Luminous efficiencies and luminous power efficiencies of 8 cd A(-1) and 3 lm W-1 were measured for these blended-layer OLEDs, with Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates of 0.35, 0.35. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3226780]“
“Reprogramming of energy metabolism, such as increased glycolysis, is a hallmark of cancer cells. One mechanism by which cancer cells Selleck ALK inhibitor fuel glycolysis is through increased uptake of glucose across cell membranes via the glucose transporter GLUT1. One of the transcriptional

repressors of GLUT1 is wild-type TP53, and cancer-associated loss of function mutations within the DNA-binding domain of TP53 impairs the repressive effect of TP53 selleck on transcriptional activity of the GLUT1 gene promoter. Because TP53 mutations are associated with unfavorable histology (diffuse anaplasia) in Wilms tumors, we hypothesized increased expression of GLUT1 in these tumors. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry for GLUT1 in a set of 50 Wilms tumors, including 5 with unfavorable histology. In a subset of 16 favorable histology Wilms tumors, we compared the GLUT1 immunoexpression with TP53 codon 72 polymorphism status. We found consistently stronger immunoexpression of GLUT1 in unfavorable histology Wilms tumors compared to favorable histology Wilms tumors (P = 0.04). We noted that the favorable histology Wilms tumors with

a proline residue at position 72 of TP53 tended to have higher immunoexpression of GLUT1, although this immunoexpression did not reach statistical significance in this small set of cases. In summary, our finding BMS-345541 datasheet of strong GLUT1 immunoexpression in unfavorable histology Wilms tumors indicates that these tumors are likely to be 2-deoxy-2-(F-18) fluoro-D-glucose avid and that GLUT1 should be evaluated as a therapeutic target for these tumors that otherwise show resistance to conventional therapy.”
“Background: Hypothermia is used to preserve organs for transplantation and is the oldest method to protect organs during complex pediatric cardiac surgery. Loss of tissue function and tissue edema are common complications in children undergoing corrective cardiac surgery and heart transplantation.

(PACE 2010; 33:1169-1173) “
“Members of the Gram-positive ba

(PACE 2010; 33:1169-1173).”
“Members of the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus are a diverse collection of species inhabiting many body sites and range from benign, nonpathogenic species to those causing life-threatening infections. The streptococci

are also prolific producers of bacteriocins, which are ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics that kill or inhibit species closely related to the producer bacterium, With the emergence of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics, Smoothened Agonist there is an impetus to discover, and implement, new and preferably ‘natural’ antibiotics to treat or prevent bacterial infections, a niche that bacterial interference therapy mediated by bacteriocins could easily fill. This review focuses on describing the diversity of bacteriocins produced by streptococci and also puts forth a case for Streptococcus salivarius, a nonpathogenic and numerically buy Repotrectinib predominant oral species, as an ideal candidate for development as the model probiotic for the oral cavity. S. salivarius is a safe species that not only produces broad-spectrum bacteriocins but harbors bacteriocin-encoding (and bacteriocin-inducing)

transmissible DNA entities (megaplasmids).”
“We prepared polycrystalline In2O3-ZnO films by post annealing the amorphous films (1.0 wt % ZnO) at 200 degrees C with various annealing times t(a) 0 <= t(a) <= 20 h. We have measured the electric resistivity and Hall mobility and also observed film structures by not only the x-ray diffraction but also scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). We have found the following: (1)

Hall mobility takes the maximum with respect to the carrier density and the annealed films clearly show the superconductivity of which transition temperature increases with increase in t(a). HSP mutation (2) The data on EELS spectra mapping of indium plasmon indicate that droplets of the pure indium phase exist on grain boundaries and near the interface between the film and the glass substrate. However, it seems that these droplets do not form an electrical conducting path but contribute to the scattering centers for carrier electrons, from the dispersed distribution of these droplets in STEM-EELS spectra mapping and the relationship between the electron mean free path and the grain size. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi : 10.1063/1.3452375]“
“Methods: We verified the location where x-ray radiation caused EMI using a CT scanner and conventional radiographic x-ray equipment. An inhibition test and an asynchronous test were performed using five types of implantable cardiac pacemakers.

Results: X-ray radiation inhibited the pacing pulses of four types of implantable cardiac pacemakers when the body of each implantable cardiac pacemaker, containing a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS), was scanned using a CT scanner.

Although sunscreen application is the most common modality for su

Although sunscreen application is the most common modality for sun protection, many people do not use it correctly. Regular sunscreen use during childhood and adolescence can significantly reduce lifetime incidence of skin cancer; therefore, check details targeting children in pediatric offices regarding unprotected UV exposure may be a practical approach.


Sunscreens continue to be a major method of photoprotection among the public, offering numerous benefits that clearly

outweigh potential risks; however, optimizing the use of sunscreens, especially among children and adolescents, remains a major challenge.”
“A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Are frozen sections of mediastinoscopy samples as effective as formal paraffin assessment of mediastinoscopy samples for a decision on a same-day lobectomy?’. Five papers were found using the reported search that represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. These studies compared the efficacy and accuracy of frozen sections (FSs) from mediastinal lymph nodes for staging of patients buy Luminespib with lung cancer to determine whether a combined procedure can be planned

based on these results and to proceed to thoracotomy and lung resection in cases of negative mediastinal nodes diagnosed by FS. These studies unanimously showed that FS of mediastinal nodes are

as accurate as permanent section results and definite histology diagnosis with a sensitivity of > 94% and specificity of 100% with no false-positive RSL3 nmr results. They also confirmed that even in benign lung conditions and other malignancies of the mediastinum, the results of FS are compared with the histology of the node. Based on the current reports, a combined procedure (staging mediastinal nodes by FS and planning for thoracotomy or abandoning thoracotomy) is a safe approach to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From the patients’ point of view, this approach is superior to the staged procedure (mediastinoscopy followed by lung resection at a later date based on the histology of mediastinal nodes) due to single hospitalization and anaesthesia, however whether it is cost effective or not is debatable. It is also labour-intensive and operator-dependant. In conclusion, the current evidence in the literature suggests that a combined procedure of mediastinal node FS followed by lung resection can be a safe alternative to a staged approach to this disease.”
“This study sought to determine the safety and effectiveness of cryo-balloon angioplasty (CbA) for pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) in pediatric patients.

In addition, sut1 mutants have greatly reduced stature, altered b

In addition, sut1 mutants have greatly reduced stature, altered biomass partitioning, delayed flowering, and stunted tassel development. Cold-girdling wild-type leaves to block phloem transport phenocopied the sut1 mutants, supporting a role for maize SUT1 in sucrose export. Furthermore, application of (14)C-sucrose to abraded sut1 mutant and wild-type leaves showed that sucrose export was greatly diminished in sut1 mutants compared

with wild type. Collectively, these data demonstrate that SUT1 is crucial for efficient phloem loading of sucrose in maize leaves.”
“Background- Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) typically manifests during or after adolescence in sarcomere SN-38 mouse mutation carriers at risk for developing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Guidelines recommend MK-0518 inhibitor serial imaging of mutation carriers without LVH (G+/LVH-) to monitor for phenotypic evolution, but the optimal strategy is undefined. Compared with echocardiography (echo), cardiac MRI (CMR) offers improved endocardial visualization and potential to assess scar. However, the incremental advantage offered by CMR for early diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is unclear. Therefore, we systematically compared echo and CMR in G+/LVH- subjects.

Methods and Results- A total of 40 sarcomere mutation carriers with normal echo wall thickness (<12 mm or z score <2.5

in children) underwent concurrent CMR. Mean age was 21.7 +/- 11.1 years, 55% were female. If left ventricular wall thickness seemed nonuniform, the size and location of Ro-3306 chemical structure relatively thickened segments were noted. Late gadolinium enhancement was assessed with CMR. Diagnostic agreement between echo and CMR was good (90%), although CMR measurements of left ventricular wall thickness were approximate to 19% lower than echo. Four subjects had mild hypertrophy (12.6-14 mm; <= 2 segments) appreciated by CMR but not echo.

No subjects had late gadolinium enhancement. During median 35-month follow-up, 2 subjects developed overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, including 1 with mild LVH by CMR at baseline.

Conclusions- Echo is unlikely to miss substantial LVH; however, CMR identified mild hypertrophy in approximate to 10% of mutation carriers with normal echo wall thickness. CMR may be a useful adjunct in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy family screening, particularly in higher risk situations, or if echocardiographic images are suboptimal or suggest borderline LVH.”
“This review presents the past and the present of pediatric neurology in Poland. Pediatric neurology has its roots in Polish general neurology represented by many outstanding scientists. The founder of Polish school of neurology at the end of 19th century was Edward Flatau, known as the author of Flatau’s law. The most famous Polish neurologist was Joseph Babinski, recognized for the first description of pathological plantar reflex.

A complete ophthalmic examination is indicated in neonatal foals

A complete ophthalmic examination is indicated in neonatal foals evaluated for systemic disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239:486-492)”
“Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory was used to quantify three different adulterants (corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup

and inverted sugar) in honeys of four different locations of Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Estado de Mexico and Morelos). The optimal calibrations for the three adulterants were developed with partial least squares (PLS). The developed models were validated with different independent data sets being the standard error of prediction (SEP) between 1.5 and 2.1 for corn syrup, 2.1-3.0 for high fructose corn syrup and 1.4-2.5 for inverted sugar, showing the applicability

of these models to the detection and Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor quantification of adulterants in honey bee. Classification of the Mexican honeys from the four different states was carried out with soft independent modeling class analogy giving 100% correct classification rate and no false positive results were obtained. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The reactions between terpenes and ozone (or other oxidants) produce a wide variety of both gas- and particle-phase products. Terpenes are biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are also contained in many consumer products. Ozone is present indoors since it infiltrates into learn more the indoor environment and is emitted by some office and consumer equipment. Some of the gaseous products formed are irritating to biological tissues, while the condensed-phase products have received attention due to their contribution to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its respective health

significance. Despite common scientific questions, the indoor and ambient air research communities have tended to operate in BI 2536 order isolation regarding this topic. This review critically evaluates the literature related to terpene oxidation products and attempts to synthesize results of indoor and ambient air studies to better understand the health significance of these materials and identify knowledge gaps. The review documents the results of a literature search covering terpene oxidation chemistry, epidemiological, toxicological, and controlled human exposure studies, as well as health studies focused more generically on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The literature shows a clear role for gas-phase terpene oxidation products in adverse airway effects at high concentrations; however, whether these effects occur at more environmentally relevant levels is unclear. The evidence for toxicity of particle-phase products is less conclusive.

Our analysis indicates that female transgenic BigBlue Fischer 344

Our analysis indicates that female transgenic BigBlue Fischer 344 rats are more resistant to PCB3 and 3-MC genotoxicity compared to their male counterparts. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Routine use of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a safe monitoring and diagnostic method during pediatric congenital cardiac surgery. However, the question of whether intraoperative TEE is accurate and cost effective for patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) LY2835219 has not been raised. This study aimed to analyze the cost-benefit of routine TEE

during the repair of TOF. The medical records, including TEE results, for patients who underwent correction of TOF between January 1997 and June 2007 were reviewed and retrospectively analyzed. Intraoperative TEE was performed for 340 patients (85 %). Residual problems were detected in 17.9 % (61/340), and a return to bypass was needed for 10 % (34/340) of the patients. The degree of agreement between the intraoperative TEE and early postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was relatively high. Surgeons with less surgical experience more frequently used intraoperative TEE (p = 0.007) and performed repeat bypass surgery Metabolism inhibitor at a higher rate (p = 0.00). Even

relatively unskilled surgeons might be able to achieve surgical outcomes similar to those of experienced surgeons using intraoperative TEE. By avoiding late surgical revision, the possible cost savings were estimated to be 1,726,000 Korean won (US$1,489) per TEE examination. Intraoperative TEE can be used as a tool for surgeons in making decisions in the operating room. In addition, intraoperative TEE decreased the frequency of reoperations and postoperative interventions. The results of this study demonstrate that routine intraoperative TEE during repair of TOF was both clinically beneficial and cost effective.”
“Dietary habits that expose populations to potential toxicants as well as protective agents simultaneously are a realistic scenario where a

meaningful assessment of the interactions and net benefit or damage can be made. A group of Inuit from Salluit, Northern Canada are exposed to high levels of PCBs and selenium, both present in the Inuit traditional foods such as blubber from sea mammals and fatty fish. Blood samples were collected from 83 Inuit, 22-70 years old. Blood selenium and PCB levels www.selleckchem.com/products/beta-nicotinamide-mononucleotide.html were determined previously and ranged from 227 to 2069 mu g/L and 1.7 to 143 mu g/L, respectively. DNA isolated from white blood cells were analyzed by modified (32)P-postlabeling adductomics technology that detects a multitude of highly polar to lipophilic adducts. The levels of 8-oxodG adducts ranged from 470 to 7400 adducts/10(9) nucleotides. Other as yet unidentified polar adducts showed a 30 to 800-fold inter-individual variability. Adduct levels were negatively associated with PCB and selenium levels. The subjects were classified into high and low ratio groups, with respect to selenium/PCB.

75Cr0 25S as is theoretically concluded by previous literature wo

75Cr0.25S as is theoretically concluded by previous literature work, while calculations with GGA+U methods predict either antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic ordering depending on the doping configurations. The appearance Cilengitide purchase of magnetic ordering is rationalized in terms of

the coupling between two adjacent doping Cr atoms that primarily governs the magnetic ordering. Therefore, changing the coupling chains in the Cr-containing semiconductors may provide an alternative route to tune the magnetic properties. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3563582]“
“Background: This study was carried out to estimate the modification of hydration status within the first three months of renal transplantation.

Subjects and methods: Fifty patients who underwent a first kidney allograft were prospectively followed for three months after renal transplantation to assess hydration status by bioimpedance spectroscopy.

Results: Two hours before the transplant procedure,

10/42 (23.8%) patients were overhydrated. Two days after surgery, 32/40 (80.0%) patients were overhydrated and at three months, 14/27 (51.9%) patients remained fluid-overloaded. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients had a lower hydration status (-0.60 L) than hemodialysis (HD) patients (0.70 L; p < 0.05) Dibutyryl-cAMP and better residual diuresis (41.7 vs. 8.3 mL/h for HD patients, p < 0.01). Compared with patients who had a delayed graft function (DGF) or a slow graft function (SGF), the immediate graft function (IGF) group had a better hydration status before transplantation www.selleckchem.com/products/ly333531.html (p = 0.031). At three months,

12/14 of the overhydrated patients had a creatinine clearance between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2).

Conclusion: Patients receiving a first kidney transplant frequently have a hydration disorder. Transplantation is associated with increased hydration status, which seems to persist if DGF or SGF occurs.”
“PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of mechanical and femtosecond laser assisted tunnel creation for intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation in eyes with keratoconus.

SETTING: Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul. Turkey.

METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive eyes with keratoconus were randomly assigned to have ICRS tunnel creation with a mechanical device or a femtosecond laser. Keraring ICRS with a 5 0 mm diameter and 160-degree arc length were implanted in all cases The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities. refraction, and keratometry (K) readings were measured preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively, and the data in the mechanical group and the femtosecond group were compared statistically

RESULTS: One year postoperatively, there was significant improvement in UDVA, CDVA, K readings, spherical equivalent (SE), and manifest sphere and cylinder in both groups (P< 05) The UDVA improved by 2.4 lines in the mechanical group and 2.