We recruited 30 patients between 18 and 80 years who were started

We recruited 30 patients between 18 and 80 years who were started on aspirin and clopidogrel following percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents. We hypothesized that the 3 months of dual antiplatelet therapy would be associated with frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic abnormalities. Patients

were followed with weekly phone calls to inquire about the new gastrointestinal symptoms and after click here a minimum of 80 days, their upper gastrointestinal mucosa Was Visualized with PillCam ESO (R) wireless capsule endoscopy. 18 (90%) of the 20 Successful wireless capsule endoscopies revealed at least I type of gastrointestinal mucosal lesion. Gastric erosions (n = 14, 70%) were the most common abnormality. We believe this is the first noninvasive endoscopic study of gastrointestinal

complications of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents. Future studies should expand on our observations to determine whether prophylaxis with proton pump inhibitors is warranted.”
“Background: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and predicts outcomes. The chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder contributes to low BMD in ESRD; however, the impact of classical risk factors for osteoporosis in the general population, such as body weight and fat mass, remains less well defined in ESRD subjects.

Methods: BMD, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), nutritional status (subjective www.selleckchem.com/products/cbl0137-cbl-0137.html global assessment), hand grip strength and multiple biomarkers were investigated in 361 patients (218 males; 60.4%) starting on dialysis. The relations between BMD, body composition and biomarkers were analyzed at baseline, and the impact of BMD on mortality was analyzed prospectively.

Results: In univariate analysis, T-score VX-809 research buy correlated with fat mass (r = 0.308,

p<0.001), lean body mass (r = 0.278, p<0.001), leptin (r = 0.124, p = 0.028) as well as the anabolic marker insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; r = 0.301, p<0.001), and its binding proteins IGFBP-1 (r = -0.342, p<0.001) and IGFBP-3 (0.231, p<0.001). BMD T-score was independently associated with age, total fat mass, intact parathyroid hormone and presence of wasting. During 5 years of follow-up, 87 deaths were recorded. Each unit of increase of T-score was associated with decreased all-cause mortality, which persisted after multivariate adjustment (hazard ratio = 0.824, 95% confidence interval, 0.681-0.996).

Conclusions: BMD is associated with body composition, especially total fat mass, nutritional status and mortality risk in ESRD patients.”

We aimed to review the pain management in 100 episodes of severe mucositis in children and determine the incidence of associated side effects.

The material was mucin, as it stained positively with alcian blue

The material was mucin, as it stained positively with alcian blue at pH 2.5. The thyroid profile was normal, and there was no evidence for lupus erythematous. The lesions were treated with electrofulguration and resolved leaving mild scars; there has been no recurrence at follow-up after one year. We also review the literature on this rare form of mucinosis.”
“Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and are used as antimicrobial preservatives in a range of consumer products, including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Despite their widespread use, prior to this study,

paraben concentrations in foodstuffs from China and human dietary exposure to these chemicals have been unknown. In this study, concentrations of six parabens were determined in 13 categories

of food samples (n = 282), including cereals and cereal products, selleck chemical meat, fish and seafood, eggs, dairy Autophagy Compound Library high throughput products, bean products, fruits, vegetables, cookies, beverages, cooking oils, condiments, and others, collected from nine cities in China. Almost all (detection rate: 99%) food samples contained at least one of the parabens analyzed, and the total concentrations (Sigma Parabens; sum of six parabens) ranged from below limit of quantification (LOQ) to 2530 ng/g fresh weight, with an overall mean value of 39.3 ng/g. Methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), and propyl paraben (PrP) were the major paraben analogs found in foodstuffs, and these YH25448 research buy compounds accounted for 59%, 24%, and 10%, respectively, of Sigma Paraben concentrations. Although the mean concentrations of Sigma Parabens varied among different categories of food items (from 0.839 ng/g in beverages to 100 ng/g in vegetables), the concentrations were not statistically significant among the

13 food categories, including canned foodstuffs. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of parabens was based on the measured concentrations in foods and the corresponding daily food ingestion rates. The mean and 95th percentile values for EDI were 1010 and 3040 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day for adult men and 1060 and 3170 ng/kg bw/day for adult women, respectively. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Plant immune responses to pathogens are often associated with enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), known as the oxidative burst, and with rapid hypersensitive host cell death (the hypersensitive response, HR) at sites of attempted infection. It is generally accepted that the oxidative burst acts as a promotive signal for HR, and that HR is highly correlated with efficient disease resistance. We have identified the Arabidopsis mutant rph1 (resistance to Phytophthora 1), which is susceptible to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora brassicae despite rapid induction of HR. The susceptibility of rph1 was specific for P. brassicae and coincided with a reduced oxidative burst, a runaway cell-death response, and failure to properly activate the expression of defence-related genes.

6 days There was no significant difference in procedure type bas

6 days. There was no significant difference in procedure type based on geographic region or age. The Northeast had the lowest rate

of posterior surgery and highest rate of anterior only procedures. The Midwest had the highest rate of anterior-posterior surgery and Northeast had the lowest. Patients age 10 to 14 had the highest rate of posterior only procedures, those age 20 to 24 had the lowest. Patients age 15 to 19 were more likely to have anterior only procedures. Taken together, anterior-posterior and posterior interbody techniques were most common in patients age 20 to 24. Inpatient hospital charges varied significantly Y-27632 from region to region. Charges were highest in the West ($152,637) and lowest in the South ($103,256). There was no significant difference in PPAC based on age. LOS was significantly highest Selleckchem Ispinesib in the Midwest (6.5 days) and lowest in the South (5.2 days). LOS was significantly higher in the oldest age group compared with the younger groups.

Conclusion. PPAC and LOS varied by region. Although there was no significant difference in treatment type based on age or region, older patients tended to have more complex procedures and a higher LOS. This did not translate into a significant change in PPAC

based on age. These data point to the need for further studies examining reasons for geographic variability in idiopathic scoliosis surgeries.”
“To improve the performance of ion-exchange polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, an electrical pathway material for enhancing the surface adhesion between the membrane click here and the metal electrodes of the IPMC was studied. As an efficient electrical pathway material, polyaniline nanorods (PANI-NRs) doped with p-toluene sulfonic acid (TSA) were synthesized with a template-free method. The factors affecting polyaniline morphology were studied with various dopant concentrations and oxidant feeding rates. Highly conductive PANI-NRs were formed when they were synthesized with ammonium persulfate at a 5.0 mL/min oxidant feeding rate and doped with 0.125M TSA. The conductivity

of the PANI-NRs was 1.15 x 10(-1) S/cm, and their diameters and lengths were 120-180 nm and 0.6-2 mu m, respectively. To apply the membrane as an actuator, perfluorosulfonated ionomer (Nafion)/PANI-NR blends were prepared by solution blending and casting. The actuating ability of the three-layered membrane consisting of Nafion/PANI-NR blends was then examined and compared with that of Nafion only. The actuating ability of the IPMC was improved when Nafion/PANI-NRs were used as electrical pathways. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 2601-2609, 2010″
“The objective of the study was to validate the Spanish version of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP). An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out on patients with epilepsy treated with a stable dose of antiepileptic drugs.

We investigated the effects of GSK1016790A (GSK) and RN1734, a TR

We investigated the effects of GSK1016790A (GSK) and RN1734, a TRPV4

agonist and antagonist, respectively, and P2X-purinoceptor antagonists (TNP-ATP and PPADS) on cystometry (CMG), and the effect of GSK on single afferent fiber activities (SAAs) of the rat bladder and its relationship with capsaicin (Cap)-sensitivity. Methods: Conscious female ubiquitin-Proteasome pathway Sprague-Dawley rats were used for CMG measurements. In SAA measurements, under urethane anesthesia, SAA was identified by electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve and by bladder distention. Cystometric parameters were measured before and after intravesical drug instillation. In SAA measurements, response with saline instillation served as baseline. Then, GSK was instilled three

times, and finally Cap was instilled to investigate the relationship with Capsensitivity. Results: Intravesical GSK-instillation transiently decreased bladder capacity and voided volume, which were counteracted by RN1734, TNP-ATP, and PPADS. In SAA measurements, selleck screening library Ad-fibers (n = 7) were not affected by either GSK or Cap. Based on the Cap-sensitivity, C-fibers could be divided into two subtypes: Cap-insensitive (n = 14) and Cap-sensitive (n = 8). In the Cap-insensitive C-fibers, GSK significantly increased the SAAs during the first instillation, but the increase attenuated with time, whereas GSK did not significantly affect the Cap-sensitive C-fibers. Conclusions: The present results suggest that activation of TRPV4 in the bladder, probably urothelium, facilitates the Selleck Ion Channel Ligand Library micturition reflex by activation of the mechanosensitive, Cap-insensitive C-fibers of the primary bladder afferents in rats. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31: 148-155, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Chronic back pain and its sequelae can influence cognitive, affective, and neuromuscular functioning. Speech production-a complex

sensorimotor activity-integrates shared cognitive, neuromuscular, and musculoskeletal resources, and therefore could be altered by chronic pain. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was twofold: 1) to determine whether speech alternating motion rates (i.e., speech AMRs) which require rapid, reciprocally coordinated articulatory movements were associated with chronic back pain; and 2) to identify factors that might mediate any observed alterations.

Fifty participants, fully or partially disabled by chronic back pain, completed standardized protocols related to pain, depression, disability, medications, as well as speech AMRs.

Higher levels of back pain were significantly associated with slower speech AMRs. Stepwise multiple regression assessed the unique and cumulative effects of specific variables such as degree of back pain, depression, level of disability, and medication use on speech motor performance. Speech motor slowness was uniquely related to back pain and the use of nonprescription pain medications, but not to level of depression or disability.

The dose was increased up to 200 U in case of no response The pa

The dose was increased up to 200 U in case of no response. The patients kept a headache diary. In addition, we specifically asked on the effect of BTA on the frequency of disabling attacks, consumption of triptans and visits to Emergency for the treatment of severe attacks. This series comprises a total of 35 patients (3 males), aged 24-68 years. All except three met IHS criteria for analgesic overuse.

The number of sessions with BTA ranged from 2 to 15 (median 4) and nine (26%) responded (reduction of > 50% in headache days). However, the frequency of severe attacks was reduced to an average of 46%. Oral triptan consumption (29 patients) was reduced by 50% (from an average of 22 to 11 tablets/month). Those six patients who used subcutaneous sumatriptan reduced its consumption to a mean of 69% (from 4.5 to 1.5 injections per month). Emergency visits went CCI-779 datasheet from an average of 3 to 0.4 per trimester (-83%). Six patients complained of mild adverse events, transient local cervical pain being

the most common. Although our data must be taken with caution as this is an open trial, in clinical practice treatment of refractory CM with BTA selleck screening library reduces the frequency of disabling attacks, the consumption of triptans and the need of visits to Emergency, which makes this treatment a profitable option both clinically and pharmacoeconomically.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of cluster headache (CH) in a neurology outpatient population in China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to December 2011 in a tertiary care, university-affiliated

hospital. All consecutive patients citing headache as their chief complaint were asked to participate in a face-to-face interview with a qualified headache specialist and to complete a detailed self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of CH was made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Second Edition (ICHD-II). Results. Of the 1,526 headache patients screened, 26 were diagnosed with CH (6 women, 20 men). Mean age at onset was 27 +/- 8 years (range, 17-47), and 50% of patients Selleck SN-38 were 20-30 years of age. Of the 26 CH patients, 61.5% reported that pain was usually centered at the right temporal region, and 69.2% characterized the pain as swelling. Attacks lasted 87 minutes on average and were associated with cranial autonomic symptoms (100%). A seasonal predilection was reported by 69.2% of CH patients. No patient reported significant changes in pain severity after physical activity. Tobacco use was common (14/26 patients), and alcohol was the most frequently cited trigger. Conclusions. This study details the clinical features of CH in a neurology outpatient population in China. Compared with Western studies, our patients were different in several aspects including the absence of chronic CH.

We present a case of severe EPN caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae,

We present a case of severe EPN caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, successfully managed with early PCD, and propose a step-up strategy aimed toward graft preservation.”

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serum acute-phase proteins and high disease activity evaluated by activity score (DAS28) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Material/Methods: Studies were carried out on 27 females with RA and 32 control women. Acute-phase proteins were divided into 4 fractions as follows: alpha 1-globulins represented by alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT); alpha 2-globulins-haptoglobin (Hp); beta-globulins-complement C3 (C3) and total transferrin (Tf); gamma-globulins-C Entinostat mechanism of action reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), and determined by

immunoturbidimetric methods.

Results: The serum levels of acute-phase proteins changed in RA patients. On account of the alterations of concentration, acute-phase proteins are placed in the downgrade scale as follows: CRP, Hp, AGP, C3, AAT and Tf. None of the acute-phase proteins correlated with the RF and the majority of them were closely related to ESR. Almost all of the acute-phase proteins (without C3) were closely related to RA activity (based on DAS28) and their places in the downgrade scale were as follows: CRP, Tf, AGP, Hp and AAT. The degree of disability evaluated by Health Assessment Questionnaire has Selleckchem Staurosporine affected on the concentrations of AGP, Tf and CRP. Serum AGP, AAT and RF levels significantly correlated with the patient’s age. No correlations were observed between IgG, TP levels, and clinical data.

Conclusions: Among the entire panel, the CRP and AGP appeared to be the most useful biochemical markers for evaluation of the disease activity of patients with RA.”
“Microsporidiosis is an opportunistic infection in organ transplant recipients and patients with other cellular immunodeficiency. Fumagillin is an effective treatment against Enterocytozoon bieneusi, one of the two main species causing the microsporidiosis involved in human diseases. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a probable drug-induced

aseptic meningoencephalitis, after administration of fumagillin in a kidney transplant recipient with microsporidiosis.”
“Purpose: Biologically active vitamin D3 (VD) derivatives possess modulatory activities GS-9973 purchase on immunological and inflammatory responses which can be reflected by altered levels of pro-inflammatory chemokines. Nasal polyposis (NP), defined as a chronic inflammatory process of upper respiratory system, could be influenced by VD derivatives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and 1 alpha,24(R)-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (tacalcitol) on the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by fibroblasts derived from NP.

Material and Methods: The study involved 12 fibroblast cultures derived from NP samples obtained from surgically treated patients.

025) Thus, patients with ICH had a higher incidence of abnormal

025). Thus, patients with ICH had a higher incidence of abnormal circadian characteristics of BP than patients with CI, the major differences www.selleckchem.com/products/Neratinib(HKI-272).html relating to a larger circadian amplitude of SBP, a smaller HR-SD, and a larger incidence of odd circadian acrophases of DBP. Journal of Human Hypertension (2010) 24, 165-174; doi:10.1038/jhh.2009.53; published online 2 July 2009″
“In this study, we fabricated a new hybrid adsorbent, titania-silica binary oxide (TiO2-SiO2)-polyacrylonitrile (PAN), by loading nanosized sol-gel-derived TiO2-SiO2 onto a porous PAN polymer for enhanced arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] species removal from aqueous media. The resulting sorbent was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, scanning

electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy, CP-456773 and porosity measurements. The sorption process for the removal of As(V) and As(III) was assessed with various parameters, including the effects of the pH, contact time, temperature, and existence of foreign competing

ions. We found that the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) species onto TiO2-SiO2-PAN was dependent on the pH of solution, and it could be well represented by the Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The prepared hybrid adsorbent exhibited highly selective arsenic retention from water in the presence of Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, SO42-, and SO32- anions at much greater levels than those toxic metals examined. The values of the standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy proved that the sorption of As(V) and As(III) species onto the hybrid adsorbent TiO2-SiO2-PAN was an endothermic and spontaneous

process. All of the results validated the feasibility of TiO2-SiO2-PAN for the highly effective removal of As(V) and As(III) from contaminated waters. SN-38 chemical structure (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 3495-3503, 2011″
“The micromechanisms related to ductile failure during dynamic loading of nanocrystalline Cu are investigated in a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Void nucleation, growth, and coalescence is studied for a nanocrystalline Cu system with an average grain size of 6 nm under conditions of impact of a shock piston with velocities of 250, 500, 750, and 1000 m/s and compared to that observed in single crystal copper. Higher impact velocities result in higher strain rates and higher values of spall strengths for the metal as well as nucleation of larger number of voids in smaller times. For the same impact velocity, the spall strength of the nanocrystalline metal, however, is lower than that for single crystal copper. The results obtained for void nucleation and growth in nanocrystalline Cu for various impact velocities and for single crystal copper [001] suggests two distinct stages of evolution of voids. The first stage (I) corresponds to the fast nucleation of voids followed by the second stage (II) attributed to growth and coalescence of voids.

The floating lag time and floating duration were also evaluated

The floating lag time and floating duration were also evaluated. Release profile

of the prepared tablets was performed and analyzed. Furthermore, a stability study of the floating tablets was carried out at three different temperatures over 12 weeks. Finally, in vivo bioavailability study was done on human volunteers. All tablet formulas achieved < 0.5 min of floating lag time, more than 12 h of floating duration, and extended t(1/2). The drug release in all formulas followed zero-order kinetics. T4 and T8 tablets contained the least polymer concentration and complied with the dissolution requirements for controlled-release dosage forms. These two formulas were selected for further stability studies. T8 exhibited longer expiration date and was chosen for in vivo studies. T8 floating tablets showed an improvement in the drug bioavailability compared to immediate-release tablets (Vastrel buy CA4P (R) 20 mg).”

Design. Kinematics of the cervical spine during head rotation was investigated using 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with cervical spondylosis (CS).

Objective. To demonstrate in vivo 3D kinematics of the spondylotic cervical spine during head rotation.

Summary of Background Data. Several in vivo studies have identified kinematic differences between normal and spondylotic subjects, but only two-dimensional flexion/extension motion selleck compound has been investigated. Differences of in vivo 3D cervical motion during head rotation between normal and spondylotic learn more subjects have yet to be clarified.

Methods. Ten healthy volunteers (control group) and 15 patients with CS (CS group) underwent 3D MRI of the cervical spine with the head rotated to 5 positions (neutral, +/- 45 degrees and +/- maximal head rotation). Relative motions of the cervical spine were calculated by automatically

superimposing a segmented 3D MRI of the vertebra in the neutral position over images for each position using volume registration. The 3D motions of adjacent vertebra were represented with 6 degrees of freedom by Euler angles and translations on the coordinate system.

Results. Compared with the control group, the CS group showed significantly decreased mean axial rotation and mean coupled lateral bending at C5-C6 and C6-C7 and significantly increased mean coupled lateral bending at C2-C3 and C3-C4, although both the groups showed the same pattern of coupled motions.

Conclusion. The in vivo 3D kinematics of the spondylotic cervical spine during head rotation was accurately depicted and compared with those of healthy cervical spines for the first time.”
“The study investigated the formulation effects of laurocapram and iminosulfurane derived penetration modifiers on human stratum corneum using thermal and spectral analyses.

0) months, (p = 0 06, NS)

Conclusion: CRS-HIPEC proce

0) months, (p = 0.06, NS).

Conclusion: CRS-HIPEC procedures for peritoneal carcinomatosis in the elderly demonstrate comparable perioperative outcome in well-selected patients. Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in the majority of cases and survival was not significantly different from that of the younger group. (c) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The reaction of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with iodide, hydroxide, azide, and thiocyanate

as nucleophiles (Nu) in ethylene glycol (EG) resulted in the substitution of Cl by No additional to the elimination of HCl, leading to the PXD101 solubility dmso dehydrochlorination of the rigid PVC. High substitution rates were observed for hydroxide, azide and thiocyanate, while the addition of iodide accelerated predominately the elimination of HCl. The substitution by thiocyanate resulted at 150 degrees C in both thiocyanate and is othiocyanate structures, whereas at 190 degrees C, only isothiocyanate

was observed in the polymer. The dehydrochlorination yield increased with an increasing molar SCN/Cl ratio, resulting in a maximum substitution at high molar SCN/Cl ratios. When EG was replaced by diethylene glycol (DEG) as solvent, the dehydrochlorination was found to be accelerated. It was assumed that DEG has a higher compatibility with PVC, making it easier to penetrate the rigid PVC particle. For triethylene glycol (TEG), the rapid dehydrochlorination resulted probably in the coverage of the surface of the PVC particle by methyl methacrylate/butadiene/styrene (MBS), preventing the penetration by the solution. The substitution/dehydrochlorination check details ratio decreased in the order of EG > DEG > TEG because of the declining polarity of the solvent, stabilizing the activated S(N)2 complex. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 36-44, 2010″
“Study Design. Retrospective study.

Objective. Compare outcomes of different treatment methods for intraspinal synovial cysts.

Summary of Background Data. Intraspinal synovial cysts are PU-H71 clinical trial cited as an increasing cause of back pain and radiculopathy. To date, few studies have compared outcomes of differing

treatment methods in patients with synovial cysts.

Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 167 consecutive patients undergoing surgical management of 195 symptomatic synovial cysts at a single institution over 19 years. The incidence of postoperative mechanical back pain, radiculopathy, and cyst recurrence was compared between patients undergoing unilateral hemilaminectomy (n = 51), bilateral laminectomy (n = 39), facetectomy with in situ fusion (n = 18), and facetectomy with instrumented fusion (n = 56).

Results. A total of 155 (97.5%) patients presented with radiculopathy, 132(82.5%) with mechanical back pain, 31 (20%) with neurogenic claudication, and 5 (3.2%) with bladder dysfunction. Most cysts occurred in the lumbar spine. After surgery, back and radicular pain improved in 91.6% and 91.9% patients, respectively.

Changes of GSNOR activity

Changes of GSNOR activity click here after exposure to different abiotic stress conditions, including low and high temperature, continuous dark and de-etiolation, and mechanical injury, were investigated in important agricultural plants. Significantly higher GSNOR activity was found under normal conditions in leaves of Cucumis spp. genotype sensitive to biotrophic pathogen Golovinomyces cichoracearum. GSNOR activity was generally increased in all studied plants by all types of stress conditions. Strong down-regulation of GSNOR was observed in hypocotyls of etiolated pea plants, which did not recover to values of

green plants even 168 h after the transfer of etiolated plants to normal light regime. These results point to important role of GSNOR during normal plant development BGJ398 mw and in plant responses to several types of abiotic stress conditions.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate changes in high-risk women’s knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination since introduction and marketing of HPV vaccines.

METHODS: At study visits in 2007 and 2008-2009, women with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and at-risk comparison women in a multicenter U.S. cohort study completed 44-item self-report questionnaires exploring

their knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination. Results from 2007 were compared with those obtained in 2008-2009. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic variables, measures of education and attention, and medical factors. Significant associations were assessed in multivariable models.

RESULTS: HIV-seropositive women

had higher knowledge scores than seronegative women at baseline (13.2 +/- 5.7 compared with 11.8 +/- 6.0, P<.001) and follow-up (14.1 +/- 5.3 compared with 13.2 +/- 5.5, P=.01), but the change in scores was similar (0.9 +/- 5.3 compared with see more 1.5 +/- 5.5, P=.13). Knowledge that cervical cancer is caused by a virus rose significantly (P=.005), but only to 24%. Belief that cervical cancer is preventable only rose from 52% to 55% (P=.04), but more than 90% of women in both periods believed regular Pap testing was important. In analysis of covariance models, higher baseline score, younger age, higher education level, higher income, and former-as opposed to never-drug users, but not HIV status, were associated with improved knowledge.

CONCLUSION: High-risk women’s understanding of cervical cancer and HPV has improved, but gaps remain. Improvement has been weakest for less educated and lower-income women. (Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:941-7)”
“The article is a review of information concerning etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Due to the risk of serious complications, including death, the clarification of etiology could result in substantial improvement or even complete cure of the disease.