70 and 71 There are twenty members of MMPs including the collagenases
(MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13), gelatinases (MMP-9), stromelysins (MMP-3).72, 73 and 74 MMPs are involved in regulating cellular migration, CB-839 ECM protein transformation, ECM degradation and apoptosis in the growth plate.75 and 76 Overexpression of MMPs (e.g. MMP-9 and MMP-13) are considered to be crucial in the development of OA.62 Moreover, Cytokines also stimulate chondrocytes in OA cartilage to secret high levels of matrix metalloproteinase 13 or collagenase-3 (MMP-13), require zinc and calcium for their activity.77 The ROS formed by reduction of oxygen are the radical superoxide (O2.−), hydroxyl radical (OH.), peroxyl (ROO.), alkoxyl click here (RO.) and hydroperoxyl (HO2.), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen
dioxide (NO2.) and non radical such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl−), Ozone (O3), singlet oxygen (O2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−).78 Recent studies showed that chondrocytes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and large amount of nitric oxide in response to interleukin1,79, 80 and 81 ROS are generated by activated macrophages and neutrophils participate in inflammatory responses.78, 82 and 83 ROS are capable of inducing degradation of collagen and aggrecan in chondrocytes.84 and 85 Nitric oxide is a short lived radical synthesized via the oxidation of arginine by a family of nitric oxide synthases (NOS),86 NO’s role in joint diseases was first reviewed by,87, 88 and 89 chondrocyte and macrophyges can produce NO and prostaglandins consecutively in response to cytokines,88, 89 and 90 ROS can reduce synthesis of hyaluronic acid (HA) main component of ECM.91 Lipid Idoxuridine peroxidation refers to oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) leading to a variety of hydroperoxide and aldehyde products that are highly reactive with components of the cell and the extracellular matrix and mediate
collagen degradation.45, 92 and 93 Taken together, it is indicated that the distribution of lipids in cartilage changing during aging and OA.94 and 95 Fig. 2 shows the brief schematic diagram of development of OA in joint. Treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) is mainly based on the pathophysiological events that alter the initiation and progression of OA. Understanding the mechanism and Modulation of cytokines and MMPs would be a main target for treatment and prevention of Osteoarthritis. All authors have none to declare. “
“Many plants have nutritive value as well as they are the major source of medicine. The medicinal value of these plants lies in phytochemical constituents that cause definite pharmacological action on the human body.