Permissive parenting was associated with higher levels of physical activity among 10- to 11-year-old learn more children. Maternal logistic support was associated with girls’ physical activity, while paternal logistic support was associated with boys’ physical activity. To promote physical activity, public health professionals could encourage parents to increase logistic support for their children’s physical activity. We have no conflicts of interest to declare. We would like to thank all of the children, parents, and schools that participated in this
study. This study was funded by a project grant from the British Heart Foundation (ref PG/06/142). This report is also a research arising from a Career Development Fellowship (to Dr. Jago) supported by the National Institute for Health Research. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors Tofacitinib price and not necessarily
those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research, or the Department of Health. “
“Young children are often negative about smoking: they think it is unhealthy and stinks. This attitude explains why only 2% of the Dutch children aged 10–12 years smoke (STIVORO, 2008). Due to factors like smoking behavior of peers and parents, social pressure to smoke, and non-smoking policies (Bidstrup et al., 2009 and Bernat et al., 2008), this aversion to smoking diminishes rather quickly. It results in 23% smokers among 14-year olds and 44% among 18-year olds (STIVORO, 2008). Gervais et al. (2006) suggest that see more a person’s first puff presents the beginning of a rapid process that leads to
symptoms of nicotine dependence and escalating cigarette use. Moreover, adolescents who are stable users of tobacco at the age of 12 show greater weekly cigarette consumption and are more likely to become nicotine-dependent (Riggs et al., 2007). The transition to high school is a period in which students are very vulnerable to factors that lead to smoking (Côté et al., 2004). This emphasizes the importance to prepare 10-to 12-year-old children before they are most apparently facing the temptation to experiment with tobacco. In a review on the efficacy of non-smoking interventions (NHS, 1999), the authors also state that an important addition to present intervention practice would be to start interventions at an earlier age, before attitudes and beliefs about smoking are being formed. Starting an education program in elementary school could therefore be an effective instrument in the prevention of smoking onset in adolescence. Flay (2009) performed a critical review of several reviews on the effects of school programs on prevention of tobacco use. There were some clear directions on what types of programs are most effective.