7 ± 7.6% in group 1 vs. 64.4 ± 9.8% in group 2 and it was < 45% in a single patient in each group (p = NS). At 60 months, LVEF was 58.6 ± 8.1% in group 1 vs. 56.0 ± 15.5% in group 2 (p = NS). A single patient had an LVEF < 45% in group 1 vs. 8 patients in group 2 (p = 0.02). The authors concluded that early treatment with perindopril over 60 months delayed the onset and progression of left ventricular dysfunction in children with DMD. This paper Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical received some criticism by Claudia Stollberger and Josef Finsterer from Vienna, concerning the study design and conclusions. Two years later, the same group published a second paper on perindopril, reporting the results on the survival of the patients
enrolled in the previous study, after extended follow up to 10 years (19). They documented a survival benefit conferred by the early, instead of delayed, administration of perindopril in patients with DMD between the ages of 9.5 and 13 years, Ganetespib presenting with normal LVEF at entry in the study. The effect of treatment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on survival seemed to have begun at 7 years, beyond which mortality continued to increase in the group of patients who did not receive early perindopril therapy, reaching a difference statistically significant at 10 years follow up. Enalapril In Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2006, Ramaciotti et al. (20) described the response to enalapril and its relation to dystrophin mutation type, ventricular size, or age at the
onset of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. To this purpose they retrospectively reviewed serial clinical and echocardiographic data from 50 DMD patients, age 10-20 years. The median follow up was Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 53 months (range 8-96 months). Twenty-seven patients (54%) maintained normal left ventricular (LV) function, whereas 23 (46%) developed systolic dysfunction. The mean age at the onset of LV systolic dysfunction was 13.2 ± 2.4 years. Among
patients who developed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical LV systolic dysfunction, 10 (43%) showed normalization of shortening fraction (responders) whereas 13 (57%) where not responders. No specific mutation was associated with the response to enalapril or was predictive of the development of LV systolic dysfunction. Recently, the effects of an early treatment GSK-3 with enalapril i.p. (1 to 5 mg/kg for 4-8 weeks) on the pathology signs of exercised mdx mouse model have been studied and compared with those of 1 mg/kg alfa-methylprednisolone (PDN), as mostly positive control (21). Enalapril caused a dose-dependent increase in fore limb strength, the highest dose leading to a recovery score similar to that observed with PDN. A dose-dependent reduction of superoxide anion production was observed by di-hydroethidium staining in tibialis anterior muscle of enalapriltreated mice, approaching the effect observed with PDN. In parallel, a significant reduction of the activated form of the pro-inflammatory Nuclear Factor-kB has been observed in gastrocnemius muscle.