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Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SC-K conceived of the study, collected and processed samples for sequencing, and authored the manuscript. KS participated in the design and implementation of the study and edited and commented on the paper. DB conceived of the study and participated in its design and implementation, contributed to data analysis, and edited and commented
on the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background this website AZD3965 molecular weight Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental Gram-negative soil bacterium that is also an important opportunistic human pathogen causing a variety of different nosocomial infections including pneumonia, catheter and urinary tract infections as well as sepsis in burn wound and immunocompromised patients . Moreover, P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent and significant pulmonary pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis causing eventually fatal lung disease . The inability to successfully clear P. aeruginosa infections through antibiotic treatment is a major contributor to the complicated and often severe outcome of P. aeruginosa infections . It demonstrates high intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and an ability to develop even higher resistance through mutation, acquisition of genetic elements, and adaptation to environmental conditions, e.g. through biofilm formation on surfaces. P. aeruginosa also possesses a large arsenal of virulence-related
factors. Among others are a type II, III and VI secretion system and their associated effector proteins such as extracellular proteases and phospholipases and the Type III secreted toxins ExoU, S, T and Y. In addition, they have flagella and type IV pili that are involved in motility and host cell adhesion [4–6]. P. aeruginosa also regulates Guanylate cyclase 2C the gene expression of most virulence factors including genes involved in iron acquisition (e.g. pyoverdine), toxin production (hydrogen cyanide), exopolysaccharide biosynthesis or biofilm formation in a cell density dependant manner termed quorum selleck products sensing mediated by the two master regulators LasR and RhlR [4, 7, 8]. Although some virulence factors seem to be host or site specific, the majority are involved in multi-host infections in a variety of different non-mammalian and mammalian organisms including amoebae, flies, nematodes, rodents and humans [9–11].