Here we consider a thermodynamic framework based on a worm-like c

Here we consider a thermodynamic framework based on a worm-like chain model of chromosomes where sparse designated sites along the DNA are able to interact whenever they are spatially close by. This is motivated by recurrent evidence that there exist physical interactions between genes that operate together. DNA Damage inhibitor Three

important results come out of this simple framework. First, the resulting formation of transcription foci can be viewed as a micro-phase separation of the interacting sites from the rest of the DNA. In this respect, a thermodynamic analysis suggests transcription factors to be appropriate candidates for mediating the physical interactions between genes. Next, numerical simulations of the polymer reveal a rich INK 128 variety of phases that are associated with different topological orderings, each providing a way to increase the local concentrations of the interacting sites. Finally, the numerical results show that both one-dimensional clustering and periodic location of the binding sites along the DNA, which have been observed in several organisms, make the spatial co-localization of multiple families of genes particularly efficient.”
“Cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) management has been experienced with

encouraging results.

We conducted an open prospective study on 12 women presenting severe SUI with fixed urethra, after previous failed surgical management. Patients Ubiquitin inhibitor underwent intrasphincteric injections of autologous progenitor muscular cells isolated from a biopsy of deltoid muscle. Primary endpoint focused on safety (measurement of Q (max) variation after 3 months). Secondary endpoints assessed side effects and efficacy.

No variation was diagnosed on Q (max) measurements. Efficacy data show that three of 12 patients are dry at 12 months, seven other patients are improved on pad test but not on voiding diary, and two patients were slightly worsened by the procedure. Quality of life was improved in half of patients.

Cell therapy for

severe multioperated cases of SUI is a mini-invasive, feasible, and safe procedure that can improve urinary condition in as a second line therapy.”
“The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) courses a long pathway beginning in the precentral gyrus and ending at the facial muscles, lacrimal and salivary glands, and structures of the inner ear. Lesions along this pathway, clinically divided into upper and lower motor neuron lesions, present with unique characteristics that assist the physician in identifying the lesion site. The sequelae particularly of peripheral CN VII palsies, may result in significant and chronic damage to the cornea that may be challenging for the physician and patient.”
“Protein kinases play critical roles in learning and memory and in long term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity.

06-2 91) higher risk of developing gastric cancer than the

06-2.91) higher risk of developing gastric cancer than the

comparison group. In diabetic patients, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors were associated with a significantly decreased risk of gastric cancer (adjusted Z-DEVD-FMK price HR = 0.38; 95 % CI = 0.15-0.96).

Our findings suggested that the association between diabetes and subsequent risk of gastric cancer may vary over time. Increased risk of gastric cancer was observed in patients with longer duration of diabetes.”
“Cytosine complexes with nitrosonium ion were studied by the RI-MP2/L1 method. Addition of nitrosonium ion to cytosine tautomers leads to formation of a set of nitrosonium complexes with different structures (1 eta-3 eta). n-Complexes formed via NO+ coordination to the nitrogen and oxygen atoms are energetically more favorable than pi-complexes. The complex of cytosine as 4-aminopyrimidin-2(1H)-one tautomer with nitrosonium ion coordinated to the carbonyl oxygen atom occupies the global minimum on the potential energy surface. Structural features of the complexes are discussed.”
“Two new methyl-migrated 16,17-seco-dammarane

triterpenoid saponins, named acerboside A ( 1) and acerboside B (2), were isolated from Belnacasan Apoptosis inhibitor the seeds of Hovenia acerba. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and hydrolysis.”
“The ethyl acetate extract of the air-dried leaves of Diospyros blancoi afforded isoarborinol methyl ether (1), a mixture of -amyrin palmitate, -amyrin palmitoleate, -amyrin palmitate and -amyrin palmitoleate (2) in a 13 : 4 : 3 : 1 ratio, and squalene. The structures of 1, 2 and squalene were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and were found inactive against Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. Sample 2 exhibited significant analgaesic and anti-inflammatory activities.”
“Acid-catalyzed reaction of 6,10a-dihydroxy-3,4a,7,9-tetra(tert-butyl)-1,2,4a,10a-tetrahydrodibenzo-[b,e][1,4]dioxine-1,2-dione with 4-chloro-2,7,8-trimethylquinoline gave previously unknown 3,6,8-tri-tert-butyl-3-[2-tert-butyl-5-(4-chloro-7,8-dimethylquinolin-2-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-oxopenta-1,4-dien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-1,4-benzodioxin-2-one whose structure was determined by X-ray analysis. The energy and structure parameters of possible isomers of the product in the gas phase and in solution were estimated by PBE0/6-31G** quantum-chemical calculations.”
“When patients with advanced gastric cancer experience active bleeding, gastroenterologists normally choose between two treatment modalities, endoscopic hemostasis and transarterial embolization (TAE). In patients with advanced gastric cancer with bleeding, the predictive factors for endoscopic hemostatic failure are still unknown.

It also uses site-specific data to assess the


It also uses site-specific data to assess the

subjectivity in the decision-making process, mainly reflected through the assignment of the criteria weights and uncertainties in the criteria scores. Analysis of the sensitivity of the results to these factors is used as a way to assess the stability and robustness of the ranking as a first step of the sediment management decision-making process. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Most Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases arise sporadically and may involve innate immune activation of microglial expressed Toll-like receptors regulated through the myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) pathway. selleck chemical Objective: It was the aim of this study to test the innate immune involvement in AD pathology. Methods: We mated APPsw/PS1 Delta E9 mice with MyD88-deficient mice. Results: Progeny mice had similar levels of soluble amyloid-beta peptides, amyloid plaque density and neuroimmune staining patterns. However, double-transgenic mice did show a significantly reduced life expectancy. Conclusion: Our findings indicate

that impaired innate immune responses may play a role in AD pathology. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Objectives: 1) To review a10-year experience of endolymphatic sac surgery (ESS) and intratympanic gentamicin (ITG) for intractable Meniere’s disease (MD), and 2) to compare preoperative and postoperative outcomes.

Design: Retrospective chart review and survey.

Setting: find more Tertiary care center.

Patients: Patients treated with ESS or ITG between GW4869 1997 and 2007 at London Health Sciences Centre were eligible for recruitment.

Interventions: ESS or ITG.

Main Outcomes: 1) 1995 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery hearing stage, vertigo class, and functional level; and 2) a 40-item validated quality-of-life questionnaire (MD Outcome Questionnaire).

Statistical Analyses: Chi-squared and t tests.

Results: Sixty-seven patients were

recruited (n = 30 ESS; n = 37 ITG). Preoperatively, the ITG group had poorer hearing stage (p = 0.03). There were no differences between groups on pre-operative functional level and QOL measures. Postoperatively, ESS patients reported more tinnitus (p = 0.003) and aural fullness (p = 0.01). There were no differences in posttreatment vertigo class. Secondary treatment was required for 27% of patients in the ESS compared with 3% in the ITG. Posttreatment hearing remained unchanged for the ITG and was overall decreased in the ESS group (p = 0.03). Participants in the ITG reported better postoperative functional levels (p = 0.02) and higher global (p = 0.04), social (p = 0.001), and overall QOL scores (p = 0.03).

Conclusion: ITG, compared with ESS, reveals better posttreatment functional levels, and superior global, social, and overall QOL scores.

“Background and aims: Therapeutic drug monitoring

“Background and aims: Therapeutic drug monitoring

of active metabolites of thiopurines, azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, is relatively new. The proposed therapeutic threshold level of the active 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) is >= 235 pmol/8 x 10(8) erythrocytes. The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to compare 6-TGN levels in adult thiopurine tolerant IBD patients with an exacerbation with those in remission, and to determine the therapeutic 6-TGN cut-off level.

Methods: Hundred IBD patients were included. Outcome measures were thiopurine metabolite levels, calculated therapeutic 6-TGN cut-off level, CDAI/CAI scores, thiopurine dose and TPMT enzyme activity.

Results: Forty-one patients had an exacerbation, 59 patients were in remission. In 17% HDAC inhibitor of all patients 6-TGN levels were compatible

with non-compliance. The median 6-TGN levels were not significantly different between the exacerbation and remission group (227 versus 263 pmol/8 x 10(8) erythrocytes, p = 0.29). The previous reported therapeutic 6-TGN cut-off level of 235 pmol/8 x 10(8) erythrocytes was confirmed in this study. Twenty-six of the 41 patients (63%) with active disease had 6-TGN levels Apoptosis Compound Library screening below this threshold and 24 of 59 IBD patients (41%) in clinical remission (p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Thiopurine non-compliance occurs frequently both in active and quiescent disease. 6-TGN levels below or above the therapeutic threshold are associated with a significant higher chance of IBD exacerbation and remission, respectively. These data support the role of therapeutic drug monitoring in thiopurine maintenance therapy in IBD check details to reveal non-compliance or under-dosing, and can be used as a practical tool to optimize thiopurine therapy, especially in case of thiopurine non-response (C)

2011 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The development of a deep wound infection in the presence of hardware after open reduction and internal fixation presents a clinical dilemma, and there is scant literature to aid in decision-making. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of osseous union with maintenance of hardware after the development of postoperative infection within six weeks after internal fixation of a fracture.

Methods: The present study included 121 patients from three level-I trauma centers, retrospectively identified from billing and trauma registries, in whom 123 postoperative wound infections with positive intraoperative cultures had developed within six weeks after internal fixation of acute fractures. The incidence of fracture union without hardware removal was calculated, and the parameters that predicted success or failure were evaluated.

Methods: Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a

Methods: Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a literature review and a consensus meeting of expert consultants and the RTS, S Clinical Trial Partnership Committee, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance. The same groups, with input from an Independent Data Monitoring Committee, developed and implemented a programme for standardized data collection. The case definitions developed reflect the typical ATM/ATR mutation presentations of

severe malaria in African hospitals. Markers of disease severity were chosen on the basis of their association with poor outcome, occurrence in a significant proportion of cases and on an ability to standardize their measurement across research centres. For the primary case definition, one or more clinical and/or laboratory markers of disease severity have to be present, four major co-morbidities

(pneumonia, meningitis, bacteraemia or gastroenteritis with severe dehydration) are excluded, and a Plasmodium falciparum parasite density threshold is introduced, in order to maximize the specificity of the case definition. Secondary case definitions allow inclusion of co-morbidities and/or allow for the presence of parasitaemia at any density. The programmatic implementation of standardized case assessment included a clinical algorithm for evaluating seriously sick children, improvements to care delivery and a robust training and evaluation programme for clinicians.

Conclusions: The case definition developed for the pivotal phase III EPZ004777 concentration RTS, S vaccine study is consistent with WHO recommendations, is locally applicable and appropriately balances sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of severe malaria. Processes set up to standardize severe malaria data collection will allow robust assessment of the efficacy of the RTS, S vaccine Citarinostat order against severe malaria, strengthen local capacity and benefit patient care for subjects in the trial.”
“Polymer-Au nanocomposite films were prepared by co-sputtering from two independent magnetron sources. By sputtering from gold and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

magnetrons, we prepared homogenous composite films using a rotatable sample holder. The microstructure of the nanocomposites was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resistivity drops from 107 to 10-3 Ohm cm over a narrow range of metal content. The thin composite films show a strong optical absorption in the visible region due to surface plasmon resonances. The optical absorption has a strong dependence on the metal content, showing a red shift of the absorption peak from 550 nm to more than 700 nm with increasing gold content. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Sarcopenia seems to be attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to food intake and exercise.

5 months The tumors were laparoscopically dissected and ablated

5 months. The tumors were laparoscopically dissected and ablated with cool-tip RFA system under the guidance learn more of contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Routine

follow-up included contrast-enhanced computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) and renal function tests. Results: Mean diameter of the treated renal tumors was 5.1cm (range 4.1-6.4cm). Initial ablation success rate was 46/51 (90.2%). Of five incompletely ablated patients, four experienced up to two additional sessions of percutaneous RFA and achieved complete ablation. After at least 12 months contrast-enhanced CT/MRI follow-up after RFA, one patient experienced local tumor recurrence and another developed pulmonary and bone metastases. The 3-year disease-free survival in patients with biopsy-proven cancer Vorinostat inhibitor was 85.7%. There was no significant difference between the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) pre- and post-RFA. Mean change in eGFR following RFA was

-2.2mL/minute. No patients required dialysis in the periprocedural period. Major complications (Grade 3) only developed in two (3.9%) cases. Conclusions: Our initial experience with this technique in T1b renal tumors was favorable with good renal function preservation and oncologic outcomes. It may be a good alternative to partial nephrectomy for selected T1b renal tumors.”
“This study was designed to assess the overall ecotoxicity of ranitidine, a histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production. Hence, in addition to ranitidine, its main two photoderivatives, obtained by solar simulator irradiation in water, were investigated. The photoproducts were identified by their physical features. Bioassays were performed on rotifers and microcrustaceans to assess acute and chronic toxicity, while SOS Chromotest and Ames test were utilized to detect the genotoxic potential of the investigated compounds. The results showed that ranitidine did not

show any acute toxicity at the highest concentration tested (100 mg/L) for all the organisms utilized in the bioassays. Chronic exposure to these compounds caused inhibition of growth population on rotifers and crustaceans. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects were especially found for one Luminespib clinical trial photoproduct suggesting that transformation products, as frequently demonstrated, may show effects higher than the respective parental compound. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“To compare the performance of anti-granulocyte scintigraphy with those of widely used prognostic indices (such as DAS28, anti-CCP, early MRI imaging).

Twenty-five patients with early arthritis were enrolled into the study. Following the review of clinical data and the evaluation of disease activity, we performed MRI imaging of the hands, anti-granulocyte scintigraphy, and determined anti-CCP positivity. The relationship between the changes of MRI scores and the above prognostic factors were analyzed statistically.

It became clear that the invasive tests were not applicable to la

It became clear that the invasive tests were not applicable to large-scale studies. Consequently, a non-invasive test was developed. Studies showed that the endothelial function evaluation is a predictor CX-4945 of future cardiac events in individuals at cardiovascular risk and in those with established disease. However, analyzing several works, an interesting concept emerged, i.e., the inverse

relation between endothelium-dependent dilation and vessel size, since large vessel tend not to dilate significantly. This notion emphasized the role of basal diameter on vascular response. In particular, as brachial artery diameter is the measure on which FMD is based, it could add more information in clinical evaluation, simplifying the assessment. Several studies showed that morphological change of brachial artery is a better indicator of the extent of coronary disease rather than FMD. Other studies showed that brachial diameter has predictive significance in the stratification of cardiovascular risk.

Conclusion: Brachial diameter is a useful and simple tool. It should be incorporated into the overall assessment of cardiovascular risk but

further studies are warranted to determine the final place of brachial diameter assessment in routine clinical Selleckchem MK-5108 setting. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Stimulated by the time resolved microscopic optical second-harmonic generation (TRM-SHG) experiment, we model the carriers transport and electric field evolution in the channel of three-dimensional Gaussian disordered organic field-effect Selleck SCH772984 transistors (OFETs) by the coupled time-dependent master equation and Poisson equation. We show that this model with the Miller-Abrahams rate

can satisfactorily account for the experimental observations that include different profiles of the electric field in the channel and the diffusionlike migration of the field peaks with respect to time. Particularly, we find that the dynamic mobility proposed by us earlier is distinct from the standard one in the presence of a typical disorder, which is attributed to the uncompleted energy relaxation of the carriers in the transport process. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3590154]“
“Purpose Researchers have launched a new area of febrile investigations on the autophagy-related gene Beclin 1. Our aim is to investigate whether Beclin 1 expression is altered in eutopic endometrium of women with adenomyosis and its association with clinical characteristics.

Methods We collected tissue samples from the eutopic endometria of 30 women with adenomyosis and 32 healthy women undergoing surgery for benign indications. We cultured the stromal cells of the eutopic endometria. Beclin I expression of the cultured stromal cells and tissues was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis.

The transmission-blocking

activity of the product was eva

The transmission-blocking

activity of the product was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence, oocyst density and capacity to infect healthy mice. To characterize the anti-plasmodial effects of NeemAzal (R) on early midgut stages, i.e. zygotes and ookinetes, Giemsastained mosquito midgut AR-13324 smears were examined.

Results: NeemAzal (R) completely blocked P. berghei development in the vector, at an azadirachtin dose of 50 mg/kg mouse body weight. The totally 138 examined, treated mosquitoes (three experimental replications) did not reveal any oocyst and none of the healthy mice exposed to their bites developed parasitaemia. The examination of midgut content smears revealed a reduced number of zygotes and post-zygotic forms and the absence

of mature ookinetes in treated mosquitoes. Post-zygotic forms showed several morphological alterations, compatible with the hypothesis of an azadirachtin interference with the functionality of the microtubule organizing centres and with the assembly of cytoskeletal microtubules, which are both fundamental processes in Plasmodium gametogenesis and ookinete formation.

Conclusions: This work demonstrated in vivo transmission blocking activity of an azadirachtin-enriched neem seed extract at an azadirachtin dose compatible with ‘druggability’ requisites. These results and evidence of anti-plasmodial activity of neem products accumulated over the last years encourage to convey neem compounds into the drug discovery & development pipeline and to evaluate selleck screening library KU-55933 cost their potential for the design of novel or improved transmission-blocking remedies.”

tasting of spicy foods could affect the accuracy of sensory evaluation because of the accumulating and lasting of burning sensation. Therefore, protocols are needed to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 milk based palate cleansers varying in fat and sucrose level on discrimination of burning sensation of capsaicin samples prepared at different concentrations. The effects were observed at 3 different interval lengths (1, 3, and 5 min) using different subjects. Subjects rated the intensity of burning sensation of the samples using 15-point category scales and they completed 7 sessions including 1 warm up session, using a different palate cleanser in each session. At 3 min interval, fat seemed to be more effective than sucrose, and the effects of fat was still more increased with the addition of sucrose. However, consistent trends were not observed at 1 and 5 min intervals.”
“The use of accelerators in rubber latex is basically different from their use in dry rubber.

Insoluble S-ESM/PEO and S-ESM/PVA fibers were achieved after trea

Insoluble S-ESM/PEO and S-ESM/PVA fibers were achieved after treatment with catechin and required no toxic or synthetic additives. FTIR spectra indicated that the hydrogen bond formed between S-ESM and catechin was the main interaction that improved the insolubility of S-ESM/PEO and S-ESM/PVA nanofibers in water. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2042-2049, 2010″
“Background: Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) are widely used AZD5363 research buy for diagnosing malaria. The present retrospective study evaluated the CareStart

(TM) Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test targeting the Plasmodium falciparum specific antigen histidine-rich protein (HRP-2) and the pan-Plasmodium antigen lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in a reference setting.

Methods: The CareStart (TM) Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Selleck ATM Kinase Inhibitor Test was evaluated on a collection of samples

obtained in returned international travellers using microscopy corrected by PCR as the reference method. Included were P. falciparum (n = 320), Plasmodium vivax (n = 76), Plasmodium ovale (n = 76), Plasmodium malariae (n = 23) and Plasmodium negative samples (n = 95).

Results: Overall sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum was 88.8%, increasing to 94.3% and 99.3% at parasite densities above 100 and 1,000/mu l respectively. For P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae, overall sensitivities were 77.6%, 18.4% and BTSA1 mw 30.4% respectively. For P. vivax sensitivity reached 90.2% for parasite densities above 500/mu l. Incorrect species identification occurred in 11/495 samples (2.2%), including 8/320 (2.5%) P. falciparum samples which generated only the pan-pLDH line. For P. falciparum samples, 205/284 (72.2%) HRP-2

test lines had strong or medium line intensities, while for all species the pan-pLDH lines were less intense, especially in the case of P. ovale. Agreement between observers was excellent (kappa values > 0.81 for positive and negative readings) and test results were reproducible. The test was easy to perform with good clearing of the background.

Conclusion: The CareStart (TM) Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test performed well for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, but sensitivities for P. ovale and P. malariae were poor.”
“Background: A treatment based on an interatrial shunt device has been proposed for counteracting elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in patients with heart failure and mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We tested the theoretical hemodynamic effects of this approach with the use of a previously validated cardiovascular simulation.

Methods and Results: Rest and exercise hemodynamics data from 2 previous independent studies of patients with HFpEF were simulated. The theoretical effects of a shunt between the right and left atria (diameter up to 12 mm) were determined.

g food) or aversive (e g electric shock) We also consider how

g. food) or aversive (e. g. electric shock). We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically

but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior Temsirolimus through diverse psychological processes.”
“P>The skin’s permeability barrier protects against extensive water loss and prevents the entry into the skin of harmful substances like irritants, allergens and microorganisms. The permeability barrier is mainly located in the stratum corneum and consists of corneocytes and a lipid-enriched intercellular domain.

The barrier is formed during epidermal differentiation. In atopic dermatitis AZD1152 manufacturer the skin barrier is disturbed already in non-lesional skin. The disturbed skin barrier allows the entry of environmental allergens from house dust mites, animal dander and grass pollen into the skin. In predisposed individuals these allergens may trigger via immunologic pathways the inflammation of atopy. The causes for the disturbed epidermal skin barrier are changes in CHIR98014 in vitro skin lipids and in epidermal differentiation, in particular filaggrin mutations. Filaggrin mutations lead to a disturbed skin barrier and dry skin which are hallmarks in atopic dermatitis. Therapeutic agents influence the skin barrier differently; topical therapy with potent corticosteroids does not lead to the repair of the barrier in atopic dermatitis, whereas therapy with the calcineurin inhibitors and lipid-containing emulsions support barrier repair.”
“A strong connection between neuronal and metabolic health has been revealed in recent years. It appears that both normal and pathophysiological

aging, as well as neurodegenerative disorders, are all profoundly influenced by this “”neurometabolic”" interface, that is, communication between the brain and metabolic organs. An important aspect of this “”neurometabolic”" axis that needs to be investigated involves an elucidation of molecular factors that knit these two functional signaling domains, neuronal and metabolic, together. This paper attempts to identify and discuss a potential keystone signaling factor in this “”neurometabolic”" axis, that is, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The EGFR has been previously demonstrated to act as a signaling nexus for many ligand signaling modalities and cellular stressors, for example, radiation and oxidative radicals, linked to aging and degeneration.