It is practical, includes up to date diagnostic techniques, and i

It is practical, includes up to date diagnostic techniques, and is beautifully illustrated throughout. In terms of the number and quality of the images I think it is easily one of the best neuropathology books currently available,

with the advantage that it covers both neoplastic and non-neoplastic focal lesions. The price of £188.89 ( reflects the quality of the finished product and, in my opinion, represents value for money. I would highly recommend it. “
“This is the 5th edition of Escourolle and Poirier’s Manual of Basic Neuropathology, published more than 40 years after the 1st edition and a decade after the previous PARP inhibitor 4th edition. For this edition Professor Charles Duyckaerts has joined the editorial team – Professor Francoise Gray and Professor Umberto De Girolami, with an additional 32 contributing authors from France,

USA, UK, Germany, Brazil and Malaysia. Although the style and the paperback format of this latest edition remain unchanged from the previous one, there are obvious updates, not limited to the selleck chemical change in colour of the book cover! Most of the chapters in the current book are fully revised, closely reflecting the new discoveries in the field of neuropathology over the past decade. In particular this relates to new findings in immunopathology, molecular biology and genetics, with concise updates on current classification, diagnostic approaches and applied methods for many of the described pathological processes. The book is divided in 14 chapters and a separate appendix. The first chapter covers basic pathology of the central nervous system. The following chapters describe the full spectrum of the various categories of neurological disorders, including neoplasia, trauma, vascular disease, infections, prion diseases, inflammatory demyelinating diseases (with emphasis on multiple sclerosis), degenerative diseases, acquired and hereditary metabolic disorders, congenital

malformations and perinatal diseases, pathology of skeletal muscle and peripheral nerve, and the pituitary gland. The appendix at the end of the book summaries why techniques used in neuropathology. In addition to a concise account of well-known methods related to adequate tissue removal and dissection, appropriate fixation of various types of specimens (including muscle and nerve), processing, embedding and staining (including histochemical, immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization methods), more recently introduced laboratory techniques, such as histoblot and PET blot methods, are briefly mentioned. The appendix finishes with a brief but helpful description of macroscopic and microscopic artefacts encountered in routine practice. The text is written in a narrative style and, although each chapter is written by various contributing authors, the style and layout remains similar and therefore easy to read and enjoyable.

Background: Haemodiafiltration (HDF) has recently been shown to h

Background: Haemodiafiltration (HDF) has recently been shown to have a mortality benefit over conventional HD thought possibly due to better clearance of middle-sized molecules

such as FGF-23 (32 kDa) and β2-microglobulin (13 kDa). These are known to be highly elevated in chronic HD patients and some, such as FGF-23, may be biomarkers for cardiovascular risk. However, it is unclear what convection volume is required to achieve sufficient removal to be associated with a mortality benefit. Methods: Stable satellite HD patients (thrice-weekly dialysis, n = 19) were selected from 3 satellite dialysis centres. At 2-week intervals, patients were changed from low-volume HDF (15L), to conventional high-flux HD, to high-volume HDF (25L). Biochemical samples were taken before and after the Acalabrutinib concentration mid-week treatment of the second week. Middle- (β2-microglobulin) and small-molecule removal were compared as reduction ratios for each compound. Paired t-tests were performed for statistical analysis.

Results: β2-microglobulin concentrations fell more with HDF than with conventional HD. The reduction ratios were as follows: HD 66.44%, HDF15L 76.48%, HDF25L 82.05% (P < 0.0001). No significant changes were observed in clearance of the following small molecules: potassium, phosphate and urea. Conclusions: Consistent GDC-0973 clinical trial with previous reports, HDF with higher convection volumes produces the greatest fall in β2-microglobulin concentrations. This and other middle molecule removal may contribute to the mortality benefits offered by HDF compared with conventional HD. 244 ADIPOSE TISSUE AND INFLAMMATION STATUS ON HEMODIALYSIS

PATIENTS IN BANDUNG INDONESIA R SUPRIYADI1, J JONNY1, R SOELAEMAN1, RMA ROESLI1, AH MARTAKUSUMAH1, RS GONDODIPUTRO1, R BANDIARA1, M RUDIANSYAH2, H PRIBADI, M ISMELIA1, D ASTRID L1 1Division of Nephrology & Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Amino acid Universitas Padjajaran/Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung; 2Division of Nephrology & Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat/Ulin Hospital Banjarmasin, Indonesia Aim: This study was conducted to describe the malnutrition and inflammation status on hemodialysis patients in Bandung, Indonesia. Background: Malnutrition and inflammation on hemodialysis (HD) patients are the most common conditions that could worsened and decrease the quality of life and increase morbidity and mortality of hemodialysis patients. Methods: Patients routinely on hemodialysis twice a week more than 3 months were recruited to the study.

The role of attacin in mediating refractoriness was demonstrated

The role of attacin in mediating refractoriness was demonstrated by RNAi knock-down. Refractory G. pallidipes depleted of attacin experienced a 45% infection rate whereas untreated flies showed 11% infection rates (17). Similar experiments in G. morsitans gave consistent

results. The nature of the signalling pathway controlling AMP expression was probed by RNAi knock-down of the NF-κB-related transcription factor relish. Depletion of relish resulted in no mRNA synthesis of attacin, defensin and cecropin in response to trypanosome challenge. Interestingly, the relative number of successful gut infections Tanespimycin nmr leading to infective metacyclic stages appearing in the salivary glands was not significantly different between RNAi-treated and control flies, suggesting that attacin does not function at later time points in the course of a trypanosome infection (16). The α- and β-defensins and the cathelicidins are structurally distinct major classes of AMPs, and mammalian representatives of each have been shown to be trypanolytic.

Both AMP classes are cationic and are generally thought to exert their cytolytic effect via membrane permeabilization (Figure 1). The major differences in these peptides are apparent in their expression profiles and structure. The defensins are expressed in a variety of tissues including neutrophils, Paneth cells and epithelial linings selleck kinase inhibitor of the gut, lung and skin and are characterized by several antiparallel β-sheets cross-linked by two or three disulphide bonds (33). The cathelicidins are structurally diverse exhibiting linear, cyclic,

α-helical and β-turn structures and are found mainly in neutrophils (34). Cathelicidins can also be induced in keratinocytes by skin barrier disruption (35). Relatively high concentrations of human β-defensins (50 μm) exhibit very weak killing of both PC and BSF T. brucei in vitro. A murine α-defensin, cryptin-4, exhibits similar activity against PC forms GPX6 but no activity against BSF T. brucei has been demonstrated (12). The cathelicidins are typically more potent trypanolytic AMPs than the defensins, and representative peptides from a variety of mammals have been shown to be trypanolytic. Cathelicidins from human (LL-37), sheep (SMAP-29, OaBAC-5-mini), cattle (BMAP-27, indolicidin, BAC-CN) and pigs (protegrin-1) kill both PC and BSF forms in vitro (12,36). Electron microscopy of PC trypanosomes treated with cathelicidins reveals a crumpled, rounded morphology with extensive disruption of the plasma membrane and loss of internal structures (12). Two cathelicidin AMPs have been shown to protect mice in vivo. Pretreatment of mice with SMAP-29 or protegrin-1 reduced the parasitaemia and prolonged the survival of mice challenged with BSF 427 T. brucei (12). Unlike the tsetse, no direct role of AMPs in immunity to African trypanosomes has been demonstrated in mammals.

Furthermore, we wanted to delineate the mechanism behind the basi

Furthermore, we wanted to delineate the mechanism behind the basis for IL-17 dependence for the generation of Th1-cell immunity. Accordingly, we show here that IL-23-dependent IL-17 is required

for effective generation of Th1-cell BCG vaccine-induced immune responses and protection selleck screening library following M. tuberculosis challenge. We show for the first time that the requirement for IL-17 in driving Th1-cell immunity is a host response to overcome bacteria-induced IL-10 and its inhibitory effects on Th1-cell generation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a common inflammatory mediator that can directly suppress the production of IL-12 in DCs 15, 16, instead enhancing the production of IL-12 antagonists, IL-10 and IL-12p40 16, 17. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that PGE2 acts on DCs through its receptors EP2 and EP4 to drive IL-23 responses and mediate Th17-cell differentiation in vitro 18, 19. Here, for the first time we show the existence of a dual function for pathogen-induced PGE2 since it can direct both BCG-induced IL-10 and IL-23, thereby simultaneously

limiting Th1-cell responses and driving Th17-cell responses. Importantly, we show that IL-17 can downregulate check details IL-10 and induce IL-12 production in DCs, thereby allowing the generation of Th1-cell responses; in the absence of IL-10, BCG-induced Th1-cell responses occurs in an IL-17-independent manner. These data therefore project a critical role for IL-23/IL-17 pathway in overcoming BCG-induced IL-10-mediated inhibitory effects. IL-17 is required for the generation of Th1-cell responses and host immunity against F. tularensis LVS and C. muridarum 12, 13. Therefore, we determined if IL-17 was involved in the generation of Th1-cell

responses following vaccination with BCG. We subcutaneously vaccinated WT C57BL/6J Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) (B6) mice or IL-17 receptor A-deficient mice (il17ra−/−) with live BCG and evaluated IFN-γ responses in the draining LNs (DLNs) of vaccinated mice. BCG-vaccinated B6 mice induced both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ-producing cells in DLNs, with higher numbers of CD8+ IFN-γ-producing cells, when compared with unvaccinated mice (Fig. 1A and B). Interestingly, il17ra−/− mice had significantly decreased CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ-producing cells compared with B6 BCG-vaccinated mice (Fig. 1A and B; Supporting Information Fig. 1A and B). In order to detect Ag-specific responses in CD4+ T cells, the Ag85B240–254 peptide containing the motif that is conserved for class II I-Ab and requires processing by APCs to prime Ag85B-specific CD4+ T cells was used to stimulate LN cells 20. Ag85B-specific Th1 cells were significantly lower in il17ra−/− BCG-vaccinated DLNs (Fig. 1C) and correlated with a decreased expression of IFN-γ mRNA in il17ra−/− DLN cells when compared with B6-vaccinated mice (Fig. 1D). However, no Ag85B-specific cytokine responses were detected in the lungs of BCG-vaccinated mice at any of the time points tested (data not shown).

Primary outcome measurement included Likert pain scale score (ran

Primary outcome measurement included Likert pain scale score (range 0–10). Secondary outcome measurements included sensory exam, medication requirement, and return to work. Based on these outcome measures, results were defined as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Results: Five of the nine patients had excellent outcomes, one was good, two were fair, and one was poor. The one patient with a

poor result had temporary improvements, but later returned to baseline. No patient was made symptomatically worse or had operative complications. Conclusions: Successful treatment of chronic, post-traumatic trigeminal nerve pain can be expected using an algorithm that measures sensory function of A-769662 manufacturer the involved trigeminal nerve branch. Then either preserves that function through neurolysis or reconstruction with a nerve graft, or eliminates that function through neuroma resection. © 2010

Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 30:614–621, 2010. “
“Purpose: The purpose of this study was to consider the relationship between the ratio of deep tissue including muscle to thigh selleckchem at donor sites and the possibility of performing primary closure of donor site. Methods: The subjects were 74 patients who had harvesting of anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap from June 2005 to June 2011. Primary closure was possible for 65 but not possible for 9. All received CT angiography of lower extremity before their operations. We measured circumference and cross-sectional area of thigh and deep tissue including muscle at the reference point. Using the measured data, we examined the ratio of circumference as well as cross-sectional area of deep tissue including muscles to thighs. Results: For whom primary closure was possible, the ratio of deep tissue including muscle’s circumference to thigh’s at the reference point was 0.83 ± 0.07 on average, and the ratio of cross-sectional area was 0.68 ± 0.11. For whom primary closure was not possible, the ratio of circumference was 0.89 ± 0.06 on average,

and the cross-section areas was 0.8 ± 0.07. The average width of flap for those with primary closure was 64.9 mm and without primary closure was 84.4 mm. There was statistical significance in ratios of circumference and cross-sectional area between primary closure and without primary closure. Conclusion: Primary Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase closure of donor site when performing ALT free flap gets increasingly difficult as the ratio of deep tissue including muscle in the thighs increased. Such information prior to the procedure will be helpful in determining flap design and finalizing the operation plan. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2013. “
“The Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap is a valuable workhorse of the microsurgeon, especially in closing large body defects. One of the pitfalls in harvesting the flap, is particularly in its inferior aspect which may be unreliable.

On the other ATM/A

On the other NVP-BKM120 cost hand, decreased transcription

of the Il2 gene in NOD mice has been linked to a reduced frequency of FoxP3+Tregs in the PLNs, decreased intra-islet survival, a limited suppressor function of FoxP3+Tregs, in addition to an impaired capacity of FoxP3+Tregs to expand in the islets 24, 37, 38. Differences in glycosylation of IL-2 between C57BL/6 and NOD mice, however, have no effect on diabetes development 46. The current study provides new insight into how dysregulation of IL-2 adversely influences the pool of FoxP3+Tregs in NOD mice as T1D progresses. We show that reduced IL-2 expression in NOD mice is associated with a temporal shift favoring CD62Llo- versus CD62Lhi-expressing FoxP3+Tregs (Fig. 3) thereby altering the composition and diminishing the suppressor function of the overall pool of FoxP3+Tregs (Fig. 5). Previous work by our group 7 and others 38 demonstrated that the progression of β-cell autoimmunity correlates with an age-dependent decrease in the frequency of CD62LhiFoxP3+Tregs in NOD female mice. The current study shows that this decrease is due to an inverse relationship between CD62Lhi- and CD62Llo-expressing FoxP3+Tregs that is dependent on the Sotrastaurin level of IL-2 expression. A direct role for IL-2 in regulating

the balance between CD62LhiFoxP3+Tregs and CD62LloFoxP3+Tregs was seen in vitro and in vivo. Supplementing cultures of sorted CD62LloCD4+CD25+ T cells with IL-2, for instance, increased the frequency of CD62LhiCD4+CD25+ T cells (Fig. 6D). In addition, an increase in the frequency of CD62LhiFoxP3+Tregs was detected in the PaLN of NOD mice following a brief induction of AAV encoded IL-2 (Fig. 6C). This in vivo pulse of ectopic IL-2 also resulted in effective suppression of β-cell autoimmunity and prevention of overt diabetes in treated NOD mice (K. S. G., M.

C. J. and R. T.; unpublished results). The above results are consistent with not IL-2 providing critical signals for the maintenance of the FoxP3+Tregs compartment in general 24, 25, and specifically CD62LhiFoxP3+Tregs. Our findings demonstrate that the temporal shift in the composition of FoxP3+Tregs in NOD mice correlates with the proliferative status of CD62Lhi- versus CD62Llo- expressing FoxP3+Tregs. In the islets of NOD mice a greater than two-fold increase in the frequency of proliferating cells is detected in CD62Llo (45%)- versus CD62Lhi (17%)-expressing FoxP3+Tregs (Fig. 4A and B). However, the frequency of proliferating CD62LhiFoxP3+Tregs is increased two-fold in the islets of NOD.B6Idd3 (33%) versus NOD (17%) mice (Fig. 4A and B), resulting in a significantly increased ratio of dividing CD62LhiFoxP3+Tregs to CD62LloFoxP3+Tregs in NOD.B6Idd3 islets (Fig. 4C). A similar trend was detected in the islets of NOD mice treated with AAV-Tet-IL-2 and fed doxycycline (Supporting Information Fig. 2). Increased proliferation in NOD.

Intravesical administration of exogenous NGF in animals can facil

Intravesical administration of exogenous NGF in animals can facilitate afferent firing and produce bladder hyperactivity, which is blocked by anti-NGF.93,94 Overexpression of NGF in the bladder

smooth muscle in spontaneously hypertensive rats leads to hyperinnervation of the bladder, which results in hyperactive voiding behavior.95 Stretching of the urothelium might induce production of NGF in the bladder tissue and secretion into the urine. Elevated urinary NGF levels play an important role in mediating the sensation of urgency in OAB. Therefore, NGF production can serve as a biomarker for neuroplasticity the some common pathway involved in the pathogenesis of OAB. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesized in bladder muscle and mucosa has a complex local action in selleck the bladder. PGE2 affects the normal micturition reflex and under pathophysiological conditions (e.g. mucosa injury and inflammatory mediators).96 Intravesical administration of PGE2 stimulates reflex micturition through activation of capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves and causes bladder overactivity in rats and in humans.97,98 A previous study has suggested the association of inflammation with OAB symptoms by the

significant elevation of NGF and PGE2 levels in the urine of OAB patients.99 Liu et al. showed that urine NGF levels were very low in normal controls, while patients with OAB had significantly higher urinary NGF levels.100 Furthermore, OAB wet patients had significantly higher urinary NGF levels than OAB dry patients. This study concluded that elevated urinary NGF levels play an important role in mediating the sensation of urgency in OAB. The possible reason for the difference of NGF levels between OAB dry and OAB wet is the higher percentage of DO in patients with OAB wet. Furthermore, urine NGF level was decreased in association with the reduction of urgency severity in OAB patients who responded to intravesical botulinum toxin A injection or oral antimuscarinic therapy,101,102 but not in non-responders. Vorinostat clinical trial These results support urinary NGF level as a potential biomarker for evaluating a therapeutic outcome for OAB. Tyagi et al. collected midstream urine specimens from eight

asymptomatic control subjects and 17 idiopathic OAB patients.103 The urine was analyzed by a multiplex panel screen for 12 chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and soluble receptors using Luminex multiplex ELISA technology (xMAP® technology, Affymetrix, Inc. Santa Clara, CA, USA). This analysis revealed a significant elevation of seven key inflammatory proteins in the urine of OAB patients relative to controls. This reported urinary chemokines profile in OAB patients corroborates the inference of severe inflammation in such patients.103 In a study of 179 biopsies obtained from 79 patients, 123 (63.1%) from 51 NDO patients and 56 (26.9%) from 28 IDO patients, Apostolidis et al. revealed signs of chronic inflammation were found in 59.1% of baseline biopsies (65.

Gene set enrichment analysis is ideally suited to identifying sma

Gene set enrichment analysis is ideally suited to identifying small but coordinated changes in gene expression in sets of biologically related genes [13, 21]. It has been used to identify biological processes such as metabolic changes [21] and signaling flux [22] that are evident across

networks of genes but subtle at the level of individual gene expression. The ability to build predictive models from small but coordinated changes in transcriptional programs is particularly important for clinical applications such as the detection of a vaccine response in which the transcriptional signal in responders compared to nonresponders is small. We therefore anticipate that this approach to gene expression predictor development will be generally useful in clinical find more situations in which the difference in gene expression between outcome classes is limited. Future studies will be able

to use this approach to test whether analogous enrichment of B cell and proliferation signatures are characteristic of vaccine response in different vaccines. Alternatively, analysis of different vaccines and in larger cohorts may be able to identify different gene sets representing other biological processes that underlie vaccine response. An advantage of gene set based predictors is that their biological meaning is more transparent. While predictive features based on individual genes may contain important, novel information about the vaccine response, their mechanistic basis is not always Clomifene obvious without additional experimental inquiry [4, 16]. Instead, we developed our predictive model from a library of well-annotated signatures derived from previously published microarray experiments and expert curation. Together with a novel analysis and visualization method—the constellation plot (Figs. 1 and 2)—this allowed the predominant biological themes that correlated with vaccination response to be readily identified. We also anticipate that in addition to vaccine response, this approach may also be useful for identifying subtle features that vary across a group

of responders, allowing the heterogeneity that is part of all human studies to be better interrogated. Moreover, the use of gene set-based classifiers may also prove useful in features predictive of adverse effects to vaccines. A theoretical concern with our method is that the biological processes involved in the vaccine response may not be represented in the compendium of signatures currently used in the analysis. However, our results suggest that at least some of the biological signatures that predict vaccine response — such as proliferation — are already present in the database of signatures used for this study. Moreover, because the method we used can draw on any collection of annotated gene sets, it can easily be extended to additional collections of gene sets.

The expansion of the sex locus is also implicated by observations

The expansion of the sex locus is also implicated by observations in the other Mucorales species, which Navitoclax nmr include an expansion of the sex locus to include the tptA and

rnhA gene promoters in M. circinelloides, a transposition of the arbA gene into the sex locus in R. oryzae and S. megalocarpus (or loss from other species/loci) and diversification of neighbouring rnhA genes and a gene encoding glutathione oxidoreductase in S. megalocarpus.[27] The sex locus of the Mucorales provides novel insights to understand sex chromosome evolution, in addition to the MAT loci of the dikarya, which provide insights on partner recognition and mating regulation. Furthermore, both humans and Mucoralean fungi utilise HMG proteins as key transcription factors for sex determination, and thus HMG proteins may be ancestral sex determinants. Mating between two different mating types produces progeny with a 1:1 segregation of both mating types. However, a significant mating type skew is found in pathogenic Mucor species. M. amphibiorum is a causal agent of ulcerative mycosis on platypuses in northern Tasmania in Australia. The

isolates from this area mainly represent (+) mating types and, in a toad mucormycosis model, the (+) mating types were more virulent than the (−) mating types.[36] The study found that the (+) mating types of M. amphibiorum caused more severe diseases in toads by producing spherules more BMN 673 rapidly than the (−) mating types. A similar mating type bias was observed in a plant pathogenic Mucorales. M. piriformis causes mucor rot in pear fruit and a study revealed that (+) mating type predominates over

(−) mating type in infected plants in Oregon pear orchards.[37] Interestingly, the (+) mating types produced larger lesions than the (−) mating types although both mating types can cause infections under laboratory conditions. In M. circinelloides, (−) mating type isolates tend to produce more virulent, larger spores than (+) mating type isolates, which produce less virulent, smaller spores; however, a subsequent finding suggested that the sexM gene in (−) mating type is not solely responsible for the spore DAPT molecular weight size difference in that sexMΔ mutants still produce larger spores.[24] Spore size could be controlled by SexP, by other genetic loci, or by other genetic loci acting in concert with SexM as a quantitative trait. Analogy is found in the human pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, in which the α mating type predominates in clinical and environmental samples (reviewed in [35]). In C. neoformans, unisexual reproduction explains this mating type bias[38, 39]; however, unisexual reproduction has not been described in the pathogenic Mucorales and currently there is no apparent explanation for the mating type bias in pathogenic Mucor species.

Conflict of interest:

Conflict of interest: Selleckchem Everolimus A. V. S. H. and H. M. are named inventors on a composition of matter patent for MVA85A filed by the University of Oxford, and are shareholders in a Joint Venture formed for the

further development of this vaccine. Detailed facts of importance to specialist readers are published as ”Supporting Information”. Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset. They are made available as submitted by the authors. “
“The development of clinical therapeutics that interfere with the migration of leukocytes has revolutionized the treatment of multiple sclerosis and holds great promise for the treatment of a wide range of inflammatory diseases. As the molecules essential for the multi-step adhesion cascade that mediates cellular migration have been elucidated, the number of potential targets available to modulate leukocyte trafficking

has increased exponentially. In this Viewpoint, we briefly review our current understanding of these mole-cular targets and how these targets vary by tissue and leukocyte subset with emphasis on T cells. We then describe the two currently approved therapeutics that target cell migration, natalizumab and fingolimod, and discuss how an improved understanding of their function could pave the way for the development of safer and more efficacious therapies for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Nearly 50 years ago, Gowans and Knight published a seminal study demonstrating that labeled lymphocytes injected into rats migrated C646 research buy from the blood into secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and then returned to the circulation via the thoracic duct [1]. In Levetiracetam an accompanying paper by Marchesi and Gowans, lymphocytes were observed to adhere to what are now called high endothelial venules and pass through the endothelial layer in a directed migration into the lymph node [2]. This process was hypothesized to be selective, as only small lymphocytes emigrated from the venules while larger lymphocytes were excluded. In the time since these first observations were made, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms

that underpin lymphocyte trafficking has exploded. The selective migration observed by Marchesi and Gowans is now understood to be a tightly orchestrated multistep adhesion cascade, regulated by selectins, integrins, chemokines, and chemoattractant lipids, that specifically directs the trafficking of leukocytes into sites essential for their function. Such an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved has resulted in the identification of an array of potential drug targets aimed at modulating cell migration in order to treat a broad range of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Today, two drugs targeting cell migration are approved for clinical use in multiple sclerosis, one of which is also approved for Crohn’s disease; and many more are currently in clinical trial for these and other inflammatory diseases.