Almost all amino acids markedly increased with increasing maturit

Almost all amino acids markedly increased with increasing maturity, except glutamine which decreased in the mMSL fruit, and leucine and isoleucine, which did not change significantly. Also alanine was found significantly higher in the mMSL fruit, whereas γ-ABA was one of the dominant amino acids in the LSL genotype. It is well-known that there is a biogenetic relationship between the formation of certain aroma volatiles and levels of free amino acids (Wang et al., 1996). In particular, the amino acids alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine

and methionine are precursors of the majority of the esters found in melons (Bauchot et al., 1998, Wang et al., 1996 and Wyllie et al., 1995). The trends observed in this study (increasing free amino acids during development and ripening, leucine and PD-1 antibody isoleucine remaining constant and glutamine decreasing) were also observed by Wang et al. (1996), who suggested

that the type and extent of ester formation may be determined by substrate availability in the fruit. In mature melons, the total volatiles content is high, so considerable quantities of precursors are required for their formation. Although the concentrations of leucine and isoleucine remained constant during maturation, esters having carbon skeletons derived from isoleucine did increase with maturity. Wang et al. (1996) suggested that there is a series of steps in ester formation where a considerable degree of selectivity (enzymes involved) must happen as the substrates are drawn from the amino acid pool. Thus, the differences between cultivars in esters GDC-0068 cost derived from amino acids are likely to be due to the efficiencies Methane monooxygenase of the different enzyme pathways within each melon. Consequently, it can be concluded that the extent of ester formation will depend on the amount of available substrates. Harvest time will influence the total volatile production, since fruit that was harvested prematurely would not accumulate sufficient concentrations of required volatiles substrates and this will lead

to a poor flavour profile of that fruit. However, in addition to the availability of different substrates, subcellular localisation should be taken into account as well as the expression of synthesising enzymes, which play an important role in the reactions. Finally, the response to the climacteric genotypes (climacteric or non-climacteric) is also an important factor, since it was observed that the expression levels of genes responsible for biosynthesis of melon aroma volatiles are generally higher in climacteric genotypes as compared with non-climacteric genotypes (Gonda et al., 2010). The sensory profile of the samples was generated by a trained panel of experts who, at the end of the profile development, agreed to use 49 terms for the quantitative assessment of the samples.

Ninety-six-well culture dishes were inoculated with PG100 cells a

Ninety-six-well culture dishes were inoculated with PG100 cells at a density of 1 × 106 cells Tenofovir price per ml. Following incubation for 24 h, the cells were then

incubated in DMEM containing 100 or 250 μg/ml of unmodified or biotransformed green tea extract or EGCG. After 24 h of incubation, the comet assay was performed on the exposed cells. The cell positive control was the cells non-treated with the tea samples. To detect DNA damage, the alkaline comet assay was performed on the cell suspensions using a modified version of the method described by Singh, Mccoy, Tice, and Schneider (1998). Briefly, 20 μl of the cell suspension was mixed with molten 0.5% low-melting-point agarose (Promega Co., Madison, WI, USA) and spread on agarose-precoated microscope slides. The slides were immersed overnight in freshly prepared cold lysing solution (2.5 M NaCl, 100 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 10 mM Tris, 2% sodium salt N-lauryl sarcosine, pH 10, with 1% Triton X-100 and 10% dimethyl sulphoxide; all from Sigma–Aldrich) at 4 °C. After incubation, the slides were washed in cold PBS (Invitrogen Life Technologies) for 30 min. Subsequently, the cells were exposed to alkaline buffer (1 mM EDTA and 300 mM NaOH, pH 13.4) at 4 °C, for 40 min to allow DNA unwinding and expression of alkali-labile sites. Everolimus clinical trial Electrophoresis was then conducted in the same solution at 4 °C for 20 min

at 25 V and 300 mA. After electrophoresis, the slides were neutralised (0.4 M Tris, pH 7.5), stained with 40 μl EtBr (20 mg/ml) and analysed with a fluorescence Etomidate microscope (Eclipse E400; Nikon, Melville, NY, USA), using the Komet 5.5 image analysis system (Kinetic Imaging, Nottingham, UK). One hundred randomly selected cells (50 from each of two replicate slides) were evaluated from each sample, and the mean olive Tail moment was determined. Tail moment (TM) is defined as the product of the fraction of the total DNA in the tail and the mean distance of migration in the tail and is calculated by multiplying tail intensity/sum comet intensity by the tail’s centre of gravity peak position. A higher percentage of tail DNA signifies a higher level of DNA damage. Ninety-six-well

culture dishes were inoculated with PG100 cells at a density of 10 × 108 cells per well. Four replicate wells were inoculated for each sample tested. After incubation at 37 °C, in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 100% relative humidity for 24 h, cells were incubated in media containing pre-defined concentrations (from 50 to 250 μg/ml) of unmodified or biotransformed green tea extract or EGCG. Positive controls (untreated cells) were also performed. After incubation for 48 h, the cultures were assayed for cancer-related gene expression. The cells were collected, and total RNA was isolated using an RNeasy® tissue kit (QIAGEN). Single-stranded cDNA was synthesised using a High Capacity cDNA Archive Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) following the manufacturer’s protocol.

Multi-endpoint studies are currently in use to test for mammalian

Multi-endpoint studies are currently in use to test for mammalian toxicity; all are performed in the rat and include the following: 1 and 2 generation studies Additionally, several fish and invertebrate apical studies look at the full life cycle and specifically at reproductive Tariquidar datasheet endpoints to test for ecotoxicity of potential endocrine disruptors. Two recent initiatives have dealt with defining endocrine disrupting properties for the purposes of regulation: The ECETOC Workshop on 25–26 June 2009 in Barcelona and the BfR Workshop on 11–13 November 2009 in Berlin (see Hirsch-Ernst presentation below). The remainder of this presentation focused

on the ECETOC proposal (ECETOC, 2009). The ECETOC approach considers the Weybridge definition of endocrine disruption and the principles of mode of action, specificity and potency of the potential endocrine

disrupter. ECETOC further asks us to examine the weight of scientific evidence, the human relevance and the assessment of risk of a pesticide with potential endocrine disrupting properties. The ECETOC approach is centred on a generic flowchart: first is a 5-step approach to identify an endocrine disruptor from a mammalian dataset and second is guidance on how to deal with specificity and potency in order to discriminate chemicals of high concern, low concern and no concern. Only when a positive outcome in one or more endocrine LY294002 sensitive endpoints is supported by mechanism of action (MoA) data (in vitro and in vivo studies)

i.e., the Screening Library cell line sequence of the biochemical and cellular events that underlies the adverse effect is described and understood, then conclusive proof of endocrine disruption can be considered as established. Five potential scenarios are presented in Fig. 2 (A–E). In scenario A, multi-endpoint studies show ‘no adverse health effects giving concern for endocrine activity’; thus the conclusion is ‘No ED concern’. In Scenario B, targeted endpoint studies indicate ‘endocrine activity giving concern for endocrine toxicity’ but multi-endpoint studies show ‘no adverse health effects…’. The conclusion is again ‘No ED concern’. In Scenario C there is ‘sufficient evidence of endocrine disruption’ according to Weybridge. Here, multi-endpoint studies show ‘adverse effects giving concern for endocrine toxicity’ and targeted endpoint studies show ‘endocrine activity giving concern for endocrine toxicity’. Thus, the adverse health effects seen in the multi-endpoint study are supported by mechanistic evidence of an endocrine mode of action. In Scenario D, adverse effects are shown in apical studies but they are not considered as sufficient evidence of endocrine disruption because the sequence of biochemical and cellular events to support an ED-mediated mechanism cannot be defined.

, 2003 and Hintze et al , 2013) Many Fraxinus species, for examp

, 2003 and Hintze et al., 2013). Many Fraxinus species, for example, Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Fraxinus excelsior, grow in floodplain forests where water may also be an important vector for long distance dispersal given the periodic occurrence of floods ( Merritt and Wohl, 2002). Stands on these sites are separated by great distances and may be connected by river corridors. Middleton (2000)

noted that the fruits of most woody species occurring in floodplain forests are dispersed primarily by water, i.e., hydrochory. Hydrochory is especially important for diversity in floodplain forests ( Katenhusen, 2001). The importance of hydrochory Dabrafenib mouse often appears to be high for the dispersal of non-native plant species. Rivers and stream ecosystems frequently possess

more non-native species than the surrounding landscape, because of a higher diaspore input brought about by water transport and disturbances caused by water dynamics and floods (Pyšek and Prach, 1993). Water can also be an important secondary dispersal pathway for F. pennsylvanica. In European floodplain forests F. pennsylvanica is an invasive tree species ( Schmiedel, 2010). Its establishment in natural stands leads to the creation of a new biotope type in naturally open areas of floodplain forests. In order to understand ABT-737 research buy the invasion process, it is necessary to obtain information about the dispersal pathways and to compare the dispersal strategy of the species with that of a closely related native tree such as F. excelsior. Baricitinib In studying long distance dispersal and plant invasions, less obvious pathways must also be considered ( Nathan, 2006 and Cain et al., 2000). Especially in Fraxinus, a comparison between wind and water dispersal seems necessary. Seed transport by water may be an explanatory factor in the contrasting invasion speeds of different tree species. Thébaud and Debussche (1991), for instance, proved that the rapid spread of Fraxinus ornus was due to hydrochory. First indication about hydrochory in F. pennsylvanica and F. excelsior was found by Schneider and Sharitz (1988) and Marigo et al. (2000). One of the factors

influencing successful dispersal by water that has been widely tested and discussed is seed buoyancy ( Schneider and Sharitz, 1988, Danvind and Nilsson, 1997, Boedeltje et al., 2004 and Vogt et al., 2004). Buoyancy is an indicator of the potential of a species to be dispersed by water ( Knevel et al., 2005). After dispersal, seed germination is the next prerequisite for successful establishment. The presence or absence of a species depends not only on the availability of seeds but also on the frequency of ‘safe sites’ (Harper, 1977). Safe sites are species-specific and have ecosystem-specific risks for germination. On floodplain forest sites the main risks are flood (Kolka et al., 1998 and Küßner, 2003) and disturbances such as sedimentation and animal activity.

, 2012, Hansen et al , 2012 and Schwartz et al , 2007) While fie

, 2012, Hansen et al., 2012 and Schwartz et al., 2007). While field trials continue to be expensive and time consuming, the costs of genetic marker studies are decreasing. With increasing ability to handle large amounts of data and combine available information from genetic studies Inhibitor Library with other geographically based information, it now seems possible to suggest indicators of genetic diversity that are both relevant and not prohibitively costly. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework and a typology for the application

of such indicators of tree genetic diversity commensurate with the current international scheme provided by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 and the BIP. To do so, we first describe the Strategic Plan and the work of BIP to identify indicators within the established framework that are relevant for tree genetic diversity (Section 2). Next, a review of past attempts to define

and report on possible tree genetic diversity indicators is provided, in order to reveal why they have not been widely applied (Section 3). We then move on to suggest see more what we consider meaningful and realistic indicators of genetic diversity of trees that can be embedded within the Strategic Plan and BIP, and constitute a framework and typology for management of trees within, as well as outside, forests (Section 4). Finally, conclusions

Florfenicol (Section 5) are provided. According to Sparks et al. (2011) and UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011a and UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011b, indicators should ideally provide answers to, or shed light on, four basic questions (Table 1). In the case of tree genetic diversity, indicators should monitor the adaptive potential of tree species to help identify and prioritize actions, related to its use and conservation. The UN Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 is made of five strategic goals and 20 specific targets to be achieved by 2020, referred to as the Aichi Targets (UNEP/CBD/COP, 2010 and UNEP/CBD/COP, 2011). To monitor progress, an elaborate indicator framework for assessing the Aichi Targets has been developed by the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on indicators for the Strategic Plan (UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011a and UNEP/CBD/AHTEG, 2011b). This indicator framework consists of 12 proposed headline indicators and 97 proposed operational indicators (see Table 2 for examples). A single indicator, used in isolation, is generally considered insufficient to assess overall progress towards a target, thus the necessity to link multiple indicators (Chenery et al., 2013). The global initiative BIP has been established to promote and coordinate development and delivery of biodiversity indicators in support of the CBD and other sectors.

2 kV 24 s injections, respectively A 1 5 kV 5 s injection on an

2 kV 24 s injections, respectively. A 1.5 kV 5 s injection on an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Series Genetic Analyzer was used with one donor to reduce signal saturation. Full profiles were detected for extracted DNA and nonFTA punches at all cycle numbers tested. FTA® card punches generated full profiles at both 27 and 28 cycles. At GDC-0199 datasheet the lowest cycle number tested, 26 cycles, 98% of alleles were called; 11 of the 12 FTA® card punches yielded

full profiles, while one yielded only a partial profile. This sample gave exceptionally low signals compared to the other two replicates from the same donor’s FTA® card. With all substrates, peak heights rose steadily with each additional cycle, as expected, and signals were often saturated at the highest cycle number tested. Signal strength with increasing cycle number using solid support materials was highly variable but collectively Rigosertib chemical structure resulted in signal increases similar to extracted DNA. Robust amplification was observed using cycle numbers lower than suggested at multiple sites, demonstrating the recommended cycle numbers can accommodate a range of material sources. When following the recommended template quantity and cycle numbers, artifacts in D18S51 at 214 bases, TH01 at 76 bases, and D12S391 at 176–180 bases commonly remain under the minimum

threshold. Increased sample signal, particularly at high cycle number, directly correlated with an increase in the incidence of called artifacts and artifact peak height. Departures from the optimal annealing

temperature can reduce the yields or generate artifacts which can affect data interpretation. Annealing temperatures 2 °C above and below the recommended annealing temperature of 59 °C were evaluated by amplifying extracted DNA and FTA® card punches. Samples were detected using an Applied Biosystems® 3130 Series Genetic Analyzer with a 3 kV 5 s injection. Full profiles were observed for extracted DNA and FTA® card punches at all temperatures tested: 57 °C, 59 °C, and 61 °C. A slight increase in artifacts was observed at 57 °C, two degrees below the recommended annealing temperature. An off-ladder artifact in D18S51 at 214 bases and an artifact in D12S391 at 180 bases were observed only in extracted DNA samples (Supplemental Fig. 11). These artifacts were below the 50 RFU minimum analytical threshold at 59 °C but, at 57 °C, increased slightly to rise above the threshold. Figure options Download full-size image Download high-quality image (173 K) Download as PowerPoint slide Extensive master mix optimization was performed during development to achieve robust amplification without the introduction of nonspecific artifacts. However, a number of inhibitors and common template storage buffers can affect the available magnesium within a reaction.

Such gutted adenoviral vectors lack all parts of the viral genome

Such gutted adenoviral vectors lack all parts of the viral genome except for the 5′ and 3′ inverted terminal repeats and the packaging signal (Ψ) required for replication and DNA packaging, respectively (Alba et al., 2005). In general, due to the presence of the inhibitory amiRNA sequences on the vector, a virus emerging from a recombination between the recombinant virus and the wt virus would be attenuated in its replication. At the

see more same time, such a recombination event would likely render the “donor” wt virus replication-deficient. Thus, the generation of a virus that is more dangerous than the parent wt virus seems unlikely. In any case, this issue would have to be addressed in animal studies. Such animal studies are also needed to eventually clarify, which of the 2 RNAi-based approaches, i.e., silencing of adenoviral gene expression by siRNAs, such as the ones presented in our previous study ( Kneidinger et al., 2012), or by amiRNAs expressed from and delivered by adenoviral vectors (this study), provide a greater probability to permit efficient inhibition of adenovirus multiplication in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate that (i) adenoviral vector-based delivery and expression of amiRNAs

can mediate significant gene expression knockdown in cells infected with wt adenovirus; (ii) targeting of adenoviral pTP mRNA by amiRNA can inhibit the replication of wt adenovirus in vitro; (iii) efficient inhibition requires a sufficiently high intracellular concentration of amiRNA, which can be achieved by concatemerization of amiRNA Fulvestrant purchase hairpins in primary transcripts; (iv) the intracellular amiRNA concentration can be further increased upon the encounter of the recombinant vector with its co-infecting wt counterpart; and (v) amiRNA expression in cells infected by wt virus and their concomitant treatment Cell press with CDV

can result in additive inhibitory effects. This work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund through grant L665-B13. “
“Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways (Murphy and O’Byrne, 2010) associated with structural changes such as subepithelial fibrosis, mucous metaplasia, wall thickening, smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, myofibroblast hyperplasia, vascular proliferation, and extracellular matrix abnormalities (Al-Muhsen et al., 2011). These changes accelerate decline in lung function despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Therefore, new strategies that can hasten the repair process and attenuate airway inflammation and remodeling are warranted. Several recent studies have investigated the impact of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) (Abreu et al., 2011) or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) (Firinci et al., 2011, Goodwin et al., 2011, Ou-Yang et al., 2011 and Kapoor et al., 2012) in experimental allergic asthma. Each has specific advantages.

We quantified these mediators based on our

We quantified these mediators based on our Bafilomycin A1 ic50 knowledge of previous findings showing that AE improves the immunologic response by increasing levels of Th1 cytokines (Ray and Cohn, 2000) or the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (Nakagome et al., 2005). However, our results have shown that AE did not modify the expression of either Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ) or IL-10. Altogether, our results may suggest that AE acts directly on Th2 cytokine expression; however, the precise mechanism for such an effect needs to be evaluated in the near future. Levels of exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) have been considered to be a marker of

airway inflammation in asthmatic patients and are increased in asthmatic patients (Prieto et al., 2002). Suman and Beck (2002) suggested that the inhibition of NO synthesis slightly attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although we showed that OVA sensitization increased ENO to levels similar to those observed in another OVA-induced asthma model in guinea pigs (Prado et al., 2005), this increase was not reduced by AE, which suggests that the effect of AE was not mediated by NO in our guinea pig model of asthma. Airway remodeling is an important feature

of the asthmatic airway and seems to be a consequence of non-resolved inflammation as well as an imbalance in the healing and repair process (Irvin and Wenzel, 1995). Airway remodeling is characterized by epithelium desquamation, the increased deposition of

extra-cellular matrix proteins on the airway BLZ945 purchase wall and airway smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia (Larché et al., 2003). In our animal model, OVA exposure induced an increase in airway edema and bronchoconstriction as well as in the epithelium and smooth muscle. Although AE reduced airway edema, AE had no effect on airway smooth muscle or on bronchoconstriction. One limitation of our study is that we did not evaluate central (cartilaginous) airways that play an important role in the pulmonary mechanical changes secondary to antigen challenge in asthmatic patients and murine animal Aldol condensation model of asthma. It is possible that the absence of reduction on airway smooth muscle and bronchoconstriction induced by exercise training may be due the fact that we have evaluated only peripheral and not central airways. In contrast, aerobic training induced a thickening of the airway epithelium. The effect on the airway epithelium observed in our study was previously reported by Chimenti et al. (2007), who demonstrated that aerobic training increases apoptosis and the proliferation rate of the airway epithelium independent of any previous inflammation. Our results have also shown that AE did not reduce OVA-induced airway remodeling in our guinea pig model of asthma, contrary to other mouse studies from our group and others demonstrating the beneficial effects of AE on airway remodeling (Pastva et al., 2004, Vieira et al., 2007 and Silva et al., 2010).

Mitochondria and

Mitochondria and Selleck Pictilisib cytosolic protein extracts were prepared using a Mitochondria Isolation Kit (Pierce) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Isolated mitochondria were solubilized in

a lysis buffer containing 20mM Tris–HCl (pH 7.5), 1% NP-40, 150mM NaCl, 0.5% deoxycholate, 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 2mM MgCl2, 1mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), 50mM β-glycerol phosphate, 25mM NaF, 1mM DTT, 1mM Na3VO4 with 2 mg/mL leupeptin, 2 mg/mL pepstatin A, 2 mg/mL antipain, and 1mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). The mitochondrial proteins were then subjected to immunoblotting analysis using antibodies against Bax and Bak. The cytosolic proteins were subjected to immunoblotting analysis using antibody against cytochrome A-1210477 mw c. The treated cells were washed with

ice-cold PBS and solubilized in a lysis buffer containing 20mM Tris with a pH of 7.5, 2mM MgCl2, 1mM DTT, 0.5% Triton X-100, 1mM EGTA, 25mM NaF, 1mM Na3VO4, 50mM ®-glycerol phosphate, 2 mg/mL leupeptin, 2 mg/mL pepstatin A, 2 mg/mL antipain, and 1mM PMSF. After incubating on ice for 1 h, the insoluble materials were removed by centrifugation at 14,000 × g for 15 min. 50 μg of protein from each sample was analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), followed by electrotransfer onto a PVDF membrane (Millipore). The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat milk in PBS with 0.1% Tween 20 and probed with the antibodies. The blots were washed and incubated with a horseradish peroxidase-coupled antimouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) or an antirabbit IgG antibody (Pierce) followed by detection with an electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) revelation system (Bio-Rad). All values are performed in triplicate and expressed as mean ± standard deviation with Microsoft Office 2013 and imaged with Sigmaplot 10 (Systat Software Inc, San Jose, CA, USA). A Student t test was used for quantitative analysis, and the significant GNA12 difference is shown as * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001. To determine the types of ginsenoside in SG, we analyzed MeOH extract of SG by an analytical high-performance

liquid chromatography. As shown in Fig. 1, the amount of four main ginsenosides in the total ginsenosides were 20(S)-Rg3 (11.33%), 20(R)-Rg3 (6.88%), Rk1 (16.72%), and Rg5 (11.97%). As shown in Fig. 1, the amount of ginsenoside Rg3, Rg5, and RK1 reached 50% of total ginsenosides in SG. A number of studies showed that (20S) ginsenoside Rg3, Rg5, and RK1 inhibit cell viability in various human cancer cells. We then examined whether SG features cytotoxic activity in human cancer cells in human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells, human colon cancer SW111C cells, and SW480 cells through an MTT assay. Fig. 2 illustrates that SG exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity against the HeLa, SW111C, and SW480 cells with IC50 values of 94 μg/mL, 78 μg/mL, and 224 μg/mL, respectively.

7 ± 15 0 and 17 4 ± 8 0% respectively) The GFP+ fraction in the

7 ± 15.0 and 17.4 ± 8.0% respectively). The GFP+ fraction in the adjacent tissue of the skin was significantly larger than in the adjacent tissue of the mucoperiosteum (p = 0.004). The fraction of myofibroblasts (Fig. 3B) in the mucoperiosteal wounds (46.4 ± 23.8%) was

larger than in the adjacent tissue (0.69 ± 0.53%; p = 0.002) but also larger than in the skin wounds (7.3 ± 7.1%; p = 0.012). In contrast, the fraction of myofibroblasts in skin wounds and adjacent tissue was similar. The fraction of GFP-positive myofibroblasts ( Fig. 3C) in the mucoperiosteal wounds (4.6 ± 3.0%) was larger than in the adjacent tissue (0 ± 0%; p = 0.023), which was not the case in skin wounds and adjacent tissue. The fraction of activated fibroblasts (Fig. 3D) in the skin wounds (78.5 ± 4.7%) was slightly larger than in the PD173074 supplier adjacent tissue (64.6 ABT-737 nmr ±7.4%, p = 0.010). The slight difference in the mucoperiosteum was not significant. The fraction of GFP-positive activated fibroblasts tended to be larger in both types of wound tissues than in the adjacent tissues (

Fig. 3E). The fraction of macrophages (Fig. 3F) was not significantly different in all tissues. The mucoperiosteal adjacent tissue (7.5 ± 5.7%) and the skin adjacent tissue (16.1 ± 6.2%) contained similar numbers of macrophages. No significant differences were found in the fraction of GFP-positive macrophages (Fig. 3G). We hypothesized that more BMDCs are recruited to quickly healing tissues such as the oral mucosa than

to more slowly healing tissues such as the skin. This was based on earlier data obtained from regenerating endometrium of the human uterus where up to 48% of the epithelial cells are derived from the bone marrow.26 However, later it was shown in some mouse models that the contribution was far less.27 This is probably due to differences in the process of endometrial regeneration between humans and rodents. Previous studies indicate that about 14% of the cells in skin wounds in mice are derived from the bone marrow, and that this is increased by wounding.28 Our data show that about Edoxaban 8% of the cells in mucoperiosteal wounds is recruited from the bone marrow, which is about 10 times higher than in the normal adjacent tissue. In contrast, the recruitment of BMDCs to skin wounds and the adjacent normal tissue is comparable, but about twofold larger than in mucoperiosteal wounds. Moreover, the total population of BMDCs in normal skin is about 25 times larger than in normal mucoperiosteum. Our data indicate that, in the mucoperiosteum, BMDCs are preferentially recruited to the wound but not in the skin. Alternatively, BMDCs recruitment in skin wounds might have peaked earlier than two weeks after wounding as reported in a mouse model.28 The long-term contribution of BMDCs, however, was similar to our findings. In the light of tissue remodelling and scarring, this might be the more relevant population.