16 The method used to generate a single hairpin vortex simulation

16 The method used to generate a single hairpin vortex simulation was introduced by Zhou et al.2 From a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database of fully turbulent channel data, linear stochastic estimation was used to find the statistically most probable flow field for the creation of a single how to order hairpin. The resulting most probable flow field is then used as an initial condition for the DNS solver to study the evolution of the structure. Figure Figure44 shows plots of the hairpin vortex using both a Eulerian vortex criterion and nDLE fields (from Greenet al.). In Fig. Fig.4,4, an isosurface of the swirl criterion (10% max value) is plotted. Figures Figures4b,4b, ,4c,4c, ,4d4d show the nDLE fields at the three two-dimensional cross sections of the structure, which are indicated by the black planes plotted in Fig.

Fig.4a4a. Figure 4 Two-dimensional nDLE plots of the isolated hairpin: (a) 10% max ��ci2 superimposed on location of the three planes, (b) constant-streamwise cut, (c) constant wall-normal cut, and (d) constant-spanwise cut (Ref. 16). [Reprinted with permission from … While much information about the development of these structures was obtained through the use of the nDLE plots, more information can be revealed when the positive-time LCS is included in the analysis. Figure Figure5a5a shows the two-dimensional plane normal to the channel wall that cuts through the hairpin head, as in Fig. Fig.4d.4d. Figure Figure5b5b shows the plane parallel to the wall that cuts through the counter-rotating hairpin legs, as in Fig. Fig.4c.4c.

Saddle points, represented as intersections of the hyperbolic pLCS and the nLCS, are again present along the vortex core boundaries and are located at the upstream and downstream ends of the hairpin head in Fig. Fig.5a5a and of the hairpin legs in Fig. Fig.5b.5b. It is interesting to note that these structurally stable saddle points are similar to those observed in the LCS plots of the steady Hill��s spherical vortex in Sec. 2A. Figure 5 Hyperbolic pLCS (blue) and nLCS (red) of the isolated hairpin head in a two-dimensional cross section of the hairpin vortex. (a) Constant-spanwise (x-y) plane, plotted as regions of DLE>50% maximum value that satisfy the corresponding hyperbolicity … If the same analysis is performed on a fully turbulent channel simulation, similar patterns of hyperbolic pLCS and nLCS are apparent.

In Fig. Fig.6,6, one such structure is highlighted with a black box. This structure is Brefeldin_A bounded by alternating pLCS and nLCS, with time-dependent saddle points located both upstream and downstream of the vortex core piercing through the plane. It is postulated that this is a cross section of the head of a hairpin vortex in this fully turbulent flow. The locations of these intersections are easy to locate in a quantitative sense and may be useful for future structure identification and tracking in complicated flows.

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