Complete disinfection

of seeds of melon, cucumber and sma

Complete disinfection

of seeds of melon, cucumber and small-seeded squash (and without preventing germination) was achieved with some dry heat treatments, with 85°C for 3–5 day being preferable. The large-seeded squash, wax gourd and bottle gourd were sensitive to dry heat, additionally harsh conditions of ≥90°C and 7 day at 85°C were needed for complete disinfection. Thus, there were no feasible conditions for seed disinfection without affecting germination for the large-seeded Selleck Acalabrutinib crops. “
“This study reports the effects of various nutritional and environmental factors on sporulation and biomass of Paecilomyces lilacinus IPC-P. These factors included carbon and nitrogen sources, carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, mineral elements

and vitamins together with water potentials, temperatures, dark/light cycles and pH. On the basis of these results, together with a ‘two-step’ cultivation and orthogonal method, the culture conditions for sporulation of this fungus were optimized. The spore suspension was inoculated on a basal medium (sucrose 19.00 g/l, soy peptone 4.06 g/l, K2HPO4 1.00 g/l, KCl 0.50 g/l, MgSO4 0.50 g/l, FeSO4 0.01 g/l, Proteasome inhibitor agar 13.00 g/l) for 4 days, before being transferred to a sporulation medium (dextrin 2.27 g/l, urea 2.13 g/l, CaCl2 3.00 g/l, ZnSO4·7H2O 0.01 g/l, agar 13.00 g/l) for a further 4 days under the following environmental conditions: −3.9 MPa/pH 7/light 24 h/temperature 29°C; these conditions were altered to −0.3 MPa/pH 6/light 24 h/temperature 23°C in order to obtain better biomass yields. The data presented provide information on the nutrient and environmental requirements of this fungus, which will be essential for its commercial production. “
“We analysed the levels of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium verrucosum in grain samples harvested in 2011 and 2012 from conventional and organic farms using qPCR. In general, both Alternaria and Cladosporium occurred in MCE all cereal grains in the highest quantities, followed by P. verrucosum and Fusarium. Alternaria,

Cladosporium and P. verrucosum had the highest levels in crop mixtures, barley and rye and lower levels in wheat, while Fusarium levels were the highest in crop mixtures and wheat. The levels of Alternaria and P. verrucosum were higher in organic rye and wheat than conventional grains. Although the level of Fusarium was higher in conventional than organic rye, opposite results were obtained for crop mixtures. A positive correlation was found between Alternaria, Cladosporium and P. verrucosum, indicating that similar factors might affect the distribution of these fungi in grains. “
“Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt), is an important disease worldwide, causing significant yield losses annually. However, little is known about the proteomic response to powdery mildew infection in wheat.

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