Furthermore, down regulation of the various transcripts encoding tempera ture stress, inducible proteins, and new pathogenesis related proteins were noted in the mutant endosperms. In o2 endosperm a putative low temperature and salt respon sive protein and putative Pi starvation induced Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries proteins were significantly induced, while a heat shock protein HSP101 and a wound induced protease inhibitor were increased. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Discussion As highlighted before, endosperm growth and develop ment is a complex phenomenon that may be driven by the coordinate expression of numerous genes. Approaches using spontaneous and induced mutants allow the characterization of the complex underlying gene expression system integrating carbohydrate, amino acid, and storage protein metabolisms, and operating during endosperm growth and development.
The current work confirms other studies carried out on the o2 and o7 mutations, in revealing considerable qualitative and quantitative differences between the endosperm protein Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries assets of these genotypes. The mutant alleles at these loci are both recessive, and when homozy gous, repress mainly the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries higher and lower molecular weight a zein subunits, respectively, with an accumula tion of albumins, globulins, and glutelins. The major shift in expression from zein to non zein genes is consistent with changes in the patterns of protein synthesis in the endosperm. Moreover, in the o2o7 double mutant, the alleles act additively and possibly independently on zein synthesis.
It is very likely that the different genetic back grounds used in the various experiments may have an impact on storage protein synthesis by considering the exceptional haplotype variability in maize genomic regions containing zein genes. Our data confirm previous findings that the o2 and o7 mutations Cilengitide nearly double the Lys content in maize endosperm and, thereby, significantly improve the nutritive quality of the grain. Furthermore, we found evidence in the opaque mutants herein investi gated for high levels of other essential amino acids derived from the Asp pathway, as well as for Arg and Gly. To better clarify the role that O2 and O7 play in endosperm gene expression and to investigate their pos sible interactions, we have mRNA profiled wild type, o2, o7, and o2o7 mutant endosperms.
The ability to concur rently profile the expression of many genes in a tissue provides a powerful tool for comparing endosperm mutants with their wild type counterparts to understand their functional role in metabolic processes. Although changes in gene lower expression do not neces sarily lead to changes in protein levels or to changes in developmental processes, the importance of transcrip tion as a control point in development is well estab lished for both plant and animal systems. In this study, the profiling of endosperm transcripts was obtained with the Zeastar unigene set, based on the sequence information of 7,200 maize genes, mainly derived from maize endosperm and covering a wide range of metabol