In addition, episodes of serious bleeding may result in long periods of inactivity. Finally, co-morbidities such as HIV and hepatitis C and their treatment may lead to bone mass loss. Thus, haemophilia has a number of predisposing factors associated with decreased BMD and such patients are at higher risk than the general population to develop osteoporosis [28,29]. One of the first clinical studies in haemophilia involved 19 men with severe haemophilia A (HIV negative, but 18/19 were positive Selleck PLX4032 for hepatitis C antibodies) . Compared with age/sex matched controls BMD was significantly lower in the lumbar spine
(P = 0.018) and the femoral neck (P < 0.0005) in patients with haemophilia. Serum levels of total alkaline phosphatases and gamma-glutamyl
transferase were markedly elevated. This led the authors to suggest that the osteopenia observed in this haemophiliac cohort may be due to liver dysfunction, although they acknowledged that other factors such as relative immobility may TSA HDAC also be relevant . More recently, Gerstner and colleagues  studied 30 patients with moderate to severe haemophilia to ascertain risk factors associated with decreased BMD. In this trial 70% of haemophiliac patients had decreased BMD, 43% had osteopenia and 27% osteoporosis. Factors associated with increased bone loss were: 1 Decreased joint mobility (P = 0.046). Table 3 presents findings from some representative studies on adults and children with haemophilia in which BMD data were reported [31–35]. They all show that BMD is lower in haemophiliac patients compared with controls. Pathophysiological changes associated with osteoporosis are almost irreversible as they involve loss of bone microarchitecture, and therefore preventative strategies in patients with haemophilia are the preferred option. There is good evidence that long-term factor prophylaxis from early childhood to prevent bleeding helps preserve 上海皓元 normal BMD . In those countries where primary prophylaxis is not economically viable prompt treatment
with clotting factor to stop the bleeding is advocated, followed by stabilization of the joint. After the bleeding is resolved early mobilization is recommended. Physicians should then encourage participation in suitable regular physical activities [35,36]. Figure 2 outlines various treatment options for haemophiliac men with low BMD. In those with osteopenia various non-prescription medications and lifestyle changes such as calcium, vitamin D and increased exercise may help. However, in patients with osteoporosis drug therapy is required and a number of drug classes are available including the bisphosphonates, estrogens, calcitonins and monoclonal antibodies. 1 Osteoporosis can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the general population.