Phagocytosis Selleck CH5424802 receptors such as CD14, Fcγ receptor II and the mannose receptor can recognize a wide range of bacteria, and ligand binding to this receptor can trigger cytokine production (Shibata et al., 1997; Yamamoto et al., 1997). As IL-12 is

produced by macrophages, it is not surprising that it is not blocked by TLR2 antibodies, but considerably affected by blocking phagocytosis. However, the fact that blocking phagocytosis blocked TNFα and IL-10 production is probably because TLR2 are recruited to phagosomes and are active after internalization. This has been observed in human DCs and macrophages (Underhill & Ozinsky, 2002). Intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors such as NOD1 and NOD2 recognize the muramyl dipeptide of gram-positive bacteria and may play a role as well. Zeuthen et al. (2008), using DC from NOD2 receptor and TLR2 knockout mice, showed that these receptors had different effects on the production of different cytokines in DCs stimulated with lactobacilli.

The differential cytokine production of different strains and preparations of lactobacilli may indicate that these bacteria/preparations may be suited for different therapeutic interventions. An ability to secrete IL-12 may be of benefit in allergic diseases, as IL-12 can reduce serum IgE levels in mice (Sashihara et al., 2006), while IL-10 can aid in tolerization of exogenous antigens. selleck products Thus, live or lyophilized L. bulgaricus that produces IL-12 and IL-10 or lyophilized L. casei would be considerably beneficial in this context while lyophilized L. rhamnosus with its ability to induce IL-10 secretion, but low induction of IL-12, may be beneficial in the reduction of inflammation. The ability of these strains, whether live or lyophilized, to induce TNFα may explain their antitumor properties. The order of efficacy of the three strains for cancer therapy would be live L. casei>L. rhamnosus>L. bulgaricus. This needs to be confirmed in animal

cancer models. This work was made possible by a grant from the Academic Research Fund of National University of Singapore. We would like to thank Dr Linda Wang for Metformin manufacturer her advice on the TLR blocking experiments. “
“The appendices can be found on the BHIVA website ( Appendix 1 Summary modified GRADE system Appendix 2 Literature search A2.1 Questions and PICO criteria A2.2 Search protocols Appendix 3 GRADE tables A3.1 Choice of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone A3.2 Choice of third agent A3.3 Protease inhibitor monotherapy “
“There are several reported cases of vertically infected children presenting with advanced HIV infection in the UK. The children of women with HIV infection are at increased risk of being infected. There are few data available on the number of such children that are yet to be tested for HIV.

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