Protein p53 is implicated in the control of cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA repair http://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html and angiogenesis and deregulation of p53 favors the development of liver tumor . The loss of p53 has been described in many types of human tumors, particularly in 30%�C60% of hepatocelular carcinoma contributing with the tumor progression . The increases of c-myc observed in hepatocytes obtained by CM2 and the Wnt/��-catenin activation could also suggest a transformation of these cells into CSC. This hypothesis is reinforced with data obtained in CM2-treated cells related to an abnormal proliferation, higher PCNA expression, cell cycle alteration and secondary spheroids formation. These results suggest that in contrast to undifferentiated or CM1-treated cells, CM2-treated cells conserve stemness capability.
This capability to form spheroids is intrinsic of stem cells or CSC. Sphere forming ability is known to be one of properties of CSCs , . Secondary spheres formation after seeding cells at clonal density confirms that spheres formation reflects auto-renewal rather than cell aggregation. In addition the increased expression of CD13, CD49e, CD133, CD166 or VEGFR2 in CM2-treated cells suggests also similarities to CSC. Some proteins as CD13 or CD49e participate in process of chemotaxis, invasion and metastasis of malignant cells . CD13 is an aminopeptidase N with matrix metalloproteinase activity that has been shown to play a role in tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, radiation resistance, and antiapoptosis ,  and it has been involved with human liver CSC .
Haraguchi et al showed that the suppression of CD13 inhibited self renewal and the tumor initiation ability of CD13+cells . CD49e, also known as integrin ��5, is identified as one of the fibronectin receptor and its expression is increased in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines MHCC97  and SMMC-7721 . Angiogenesis is important for tumor growth, and is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Hepatocellular carcinoma is a solid tumor with rich neovasculature and VEGFR2 overexpression has been localized in tumoral hepatocytes . CD133 is a CSC marker associated with radioresistance and chemoresistance in various cancers and has been also identified as specific antigenic marker of liver CSC , .
Finally, our proteomic analysis showed a higher presence of hepatocellular carcinoma-related proteins, Carfilzomib such as cathepsin �� precursor, cathepsin D precursor, adenine phosphoribosyl transferase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, inorganic pyrophosphatase or peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, in CM2 treated cells compared to CM1 treated cells. A high expression of these proteins has been observed in hepatic tumor and metastasis , , .