The aim of this study was to determine if ammonium efflux contrib

The aim of this study was to determine if ammonium efflux contributes to the increase EL in senescing barley leaves. During senescence of detached leaves the increase of EL correlated with ammonium leakage (r(2) = 0.82) and ammonium content in tissues (r(2) = 0.73), but not with K1+ leakage (r(2) = 0.23). Although lower amounts of ammonium accumulated in senescing attached leaves, again GSK2399872A mouse changes in EL paralleled ammonium accumulation. EL increased early during senescence even though ion leakage was selective (leaves leaked proportionally more ammonium than K1+), and membranes

appeared intact as judged from staining with the cell impermeant stain propidium iodide. Detached leaves maintained their capacity to regreen after 3 days of senescence-acceleration

in darkness, i.e., membrane integrity was not severely compromised. During the early stages of senescence, EL increases due to ammonium accumulation (possibly resulting from protein degradation) even if there is no massive disruption of cell membranes. Therefore, increased EL in senescing leaves is not an unequivocal symptom of cell membrane damage. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“We previously fabricated superconducting magnet component coils that were asymmetrically arranged along the coil axis. In this study, BAY 73-4506 research buy we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using this magnet. The magnet consisted of seven coils wound up with NbTi wires, generating a homogeneous field zone at 29 mm off-center along the longitudinal Pexidartinib cell line axis. A gradient coil, a radio frequency coil, and other hardware were installed for MRI measurements. MRI of water in a sample tube and of a vegetable was performed using a spin-echo method under a static field of 0.77 T. If this concept of magnet design were extended to develop a larger MRI system for the human

brain, a subject would have a wide field of vision and could move the hands during imaging. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3560048]“
“This review considers stomatal conductance as an indicator of genotypic differences in the growth response to water stress. The benefits of using stomatal conductance are compared with photosynthetic rate and other indicators of genetic variation in water stress tolerance, along with the use of modern phenomics technologies. Various treatments for screening for genetic diversity in response to water deficit in controlled environments are considered. There is no perfect medium: there are pitfalls in using soil in pots, and in using hydroponics with ionic and non-ionic osmotica. Use of mixed salts or NaCl is recommended over non-ionic osmotica.

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