“The current standard of care for head and neck cancer inc

“The current standard of care for head and neck cancer includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. This radiotherapy results in a multitude of negative side effects in adjacent normal tissues. Autophagy is a cellular

mechanism that could be targeted to ameliorate these side effects based on its role in cellular homeostasis. In this study, we utilized Atg5(f/f); Aqp5-Cre mice which harbor a conditional knockout of Atg5, in salivary acinar cells. These autophagy-deficient click here mice display increased radiosensitivity. Treatment of wild-type mice with radiation did not robustly induce autophagy following radiotherapy, however, using a model of preserved salivary gland function by IGF-1-treatment prior to irradiation, we demonstrate increased autophagosome formation 6-8 hours following radiation. Additionally, administration of IGF-1 to Atg5(f/f); Aqp5-Cre mice did not preserve physiological function. Thus, autophagy appears to play a

beneficial role in salivary glands following radiation and pharmacological induction of autophagy could alleviate the negative side effects associated with therapy for head and neck cancer.”
“Two cases of a primary mediastinal ERK inhibitor manufacturer tumor showing both thymoma and seminoma elements are presented. The patients were 2 men, aged 32 and 34 years, respectively. Clinically, both patients presented with symptoms related to their mediastinal masses, namely, chest pain and shortness of breath. Neither patient had any previous history of malignancy elsewhere. Diagnostic imaging revealed the presence of large anterior mediastinal masses. Both patients underwent thoracotomy with complete resection of their tumors. Grossly, the lesions measured 6 and 8 cm in greatest diameter, respectively and were tan and firm

without areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. Both tumors appeared to be well circumscribed and grossly not involving any adjacent structures. Histologic sections showed the presence of distinct areas in the same tumor mass check details corresponding to conventional thymoma, whereas other areas corresponded to seminoma. Both components appeared to be present in almost equal proportions in the tumor. Immunohistochemical studies showed distinct labeling for each component: the thymoma component was positive for CAM5.2, Pax8, and cytokeratin 5/6; the seminoma component was positive for CAM5.2, SALL4, OCT3/4, and placental-like alkaline phosphatase. Both patients are currently alive and well 12 and 18 months after surgery, respectively. The cases herein described highlight the importance of ample sampling in mediastinal tumors and document for the first time the existence of combined thymoma thymic seminomas. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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