The global selectivity of this sensing method is based on the co

The global selectivity of this sensing method is based on the common characteristics of each basic taste substance, for example, bitterness: high hydrophobicity, sourness: proton donors, saltiness: metal cations. The taste sensor system is used in the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Some products developed by these industries using the taste sensor system are now in common use [30].The taste sensor system can quantify the intensities of each basic taste by the membrane potential measurement. Because of the measurement principle, it is difficult to evaluate sweetness using only one sensor electrode. Since sweet substances consist of nonelectrolytes (sugars), positively charged electrolytes (peptides) and negatively charged electrolytes (sulfonyl amides) under acidic conditions (most food environments), three types of sweetness sensor membrane are required for each electric charge type of sweetener.

The sensor in the taste sensing system for nonelectrolytes (sugars and sugar alcohols) has already been developed and commercialized as a sweetness sensor [31,32]. The commercially available sweetness sensor is used in the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries to estimate the sweet taste intensity of sugars and sugar alcohols. As mentioned above, in principle, it is difficult to develop a sweetness sensor for all sweet substances. Hence, we decided to develop two additional types of sweetness sensor, that is, for positively charged sweeteners (peptides) and for negatively charged sweeteners (sulfonyl amides).

Both positively and negatively charged electrolyte sweeteners are mainly included in high-p
Nanomechanical sensors have attracted considerable interest, as they are a promising tool for real-time and label-free detection of chemical gases and biomolecules [1�C7]. These molecular adsorbates introduce surface stresses upon the detective surface layer and sequentially produce measurable displacement and stress fields in the sensors [8,9]. For cantilever-shaped nanomechanical Batimastat sensors, the output signals are often measured as tip deflections using a position-sensitive photodetector [6] or as strain/stress changes near clamping regions using a Wheatstone bridge [6,10].The sensitivity of the induced surface stress dominates the performance of cantilever-shaped nanomechanical sensors. Understanding the physical mechanisms of adsorption-induced surface stress and their influences on the overall displacement and stress fields are the key to designing next-generation nanomechanical sensors. Surface stresses due to molecular adsorption often arise from two main sources: weak inter-adsorbate interactions and strong adsorbate�Csubstrate interactions [1,9,11].

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