There are also some methodological difficulties in detecting the

There are also some methodological difficulties in detecting the specific form of cell death in articular cartilage. Current ‘gold standard’ for detecting chondrocyte death is electron microscopy which suggests

that the morphological changes of chondrocytes in OA cartilage are attributed to apoptosis and/or chondroptosis. However, the current literature appears to suggest that classic apoptosis plays an important role in OA; but whether chondrocyte apoptosis is a cause or a result of cartilage degeneration in OA is hotly contested. Studies of suitable animal models, especially longitudinal studies, are needed to address the cause-and-effect relationship. “
“International guidelines state that live vaccines are contraindicated in patients on anti-TNF therapy. However, we report the Selleck Gefitinib experience

of a patient who inadvertently received live polio vaccine whilst receiving anti-TNF therapy. Patient did not suffer from any infectious sequel as a result. No clear guidelines are available for all vaccines in patients with specific rheumatic diseases. However, if we consider adult patients with rheumatic diseases to have altered immunocompetence, it is recommended that they receive the usual inactivated vaccines according to standard schedules, and live vaccines should be avoided in those who are treated with more potent forms of immune suppression. ABT-888 Patients should be counseled regarding the risks of live vaccines prior to treatment with anti-TNF therapy. “
“Background:  Genital aphthous ulcers of Behcet’s disease (BD) are painful and usually resistant to local treatments. Pimecrolimus is an ascomycin macrolactam, used in inflammatory skin diseases. Objective:  To discover if pimecrolimus can accelerate the healing of BD genital aphthous ulcers. Methods: 

Ninety patients with genital aphthous ulcers were enrolled. Only patients treated with colchicine alone were selected. All patients signed a written consent form. Patients were randomly assigned to pimecrolimus or placebo cream, applied twice however daily for 1 week. The primary outcome was the healing period. Up to 7 days, it was considered as a positive result. Results were compared by chi-square test. The mean healing time was compared by analysis of variance. Analyses were done both by the ‘intention-to-treat’ and ‘treatment-completed’ methods. Results:  Both groups were similar at the entry (gender, age, ulcer size, pain intensity and treatment delay). By intention-to-treat analysis, in the pimecrolimus group, 18 patients had positive and 27 negative results. In the control group, four had positive and 41 negative results. The difference was significant (χ2 = 10.167, P = 0.001). By treatment-completed analysis, with pimecrolimus, 18 patients had positive and 22 negative results. With placebo, four had positive, and 41 negative results. The difference was significant (χ2 = 12.

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