These include health care workers,3,37 those in contact with pris

These include health care workers,3,37 those in contact with prison populations,38 and those visiting friends and relatives or the children of such travelers.39 The Peace Corps Volunteers and the soldiers involved in humanitarian assistance in RG7422 datasheet a refugee setting at Naval Base Guantanamo were populations in which close contact with local nationals may have occurred more frequently. The

Peace Corps Volunteers studied had a cumulative incidence of 2.3%, only 15% higher than the overall risk estimate of 2.0%, while that for US soldiers providing humanitarian assistance to Haitian refugees at Guantanamo Bay was 3.6%, almost double the overall estimate, even though Peace Corps Volunteers’ exposure to the local population is of long term and that for Atezolizumab the soldiers averaged less than 6 months. However, the only characteristic significantly associated with increased risk for TST conversion among the soldiers was birthplace outside the United States. The authors of the Guantanamo study speculate that non-US-born soldiers may have had language skills that may have increased their exposure to refugees with active TB, but also state that it is possible that soldiers whose TSTs were positive before deployment were misclassified

as TST converters. TST conversion can be due to LTBI or can be falsely positive. It is possible that some of the differences in results seen among the studies are due to false positive reactions to the TST from cross-reactions with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), boosting of waned LTBI or NTM infection, or variability in skin test administration and reading.8 These limitations of the TST as a diagnostic tool probably result in an overestimate of the true risk of infection. Although we estimate a 2% risk of conversion, plausible values of PPV range from 16% to 50% in US-born populations.12 With a PPV of 50% this would reduce the estimate to 1%, which is still rather

high. Alternatively, with a PPV of 16%, the estimated risk of infection would be 0.33%. Although boosting of LTBI may be addressed by two-step testing prior to travel, this is Carbohydrate very difficult to accomplish in a travel medicine setting. Many of the studies and data sources lack two-step testing, and thus do not take into account the booster phenomenon. Because the German military takes boosting into account by the use of two-step testing, the noticeably higher incidence of TST conversions in deployed German military units (2.9%) is interesting. However, this may be explained at least in part by several factors. Although the German military does not conduct Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination during military service, vaccination prior to joining the military may affect TST results, as it is available to the civilian population.

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