“To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets FG 4592 that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily
requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P smaller than 0.05). Diet (P smaller than 0.01) and day of sampling (P smaller than 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P smaller than 0.05) and day (P smaller than 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 +/- 0.4; C: 12.4 +/- 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P smaller than 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 +/- 0.3 and 3.4 +/- 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P smaller than 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 +/-
0.4 and 6.2 +/- 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be U0126 mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality.”
The nicotine dependence (ND) has negative and smoking abstinence self-efficacy (SASE) has positive effects on successful smoking cessation, but scant data is now FG-4592 manufacturer available for what is the mediating role of SASE on the relationship between ND and successful smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to assess the abovementioned mediation. Methods: A case-control study was conducted with 642 successful spontaneous quitters as the cases, and 700 failed spontaneous quitters as the controls. ND and SASE were evaluated by Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scale and SASE scale, respectively. Propensity score as covariate in the regression model was used to adjust for potential confounders of age, age of smoking initiation, occupation, educational level and marital status. Total effect was decomposed into direct and indirect (mediating) effect using logistic regression based on the KHB method proposed by Holm et al. Results: After adjusting for the aforementioned potential confounders, the mediating effects among the total effect of ND on successful spontaneous smoking cessation were 32.90%, 12.14%, 35.64% and 83.03% for the total score of SASE and its three context-specific situation scores, i.e.