Treatment of neutrophils with chemoattractants or conventional agonists significantly increased bacterial DNA binding. Moreover, neutrophils that underwent transmigration through human endothelial cell monolayers even in the absence of chemoattractants, exhibited higher binding levels of bacterial DNA. Together, our findings provide evidence that binding of bacterial DNA to neutrophils is a receptor- mediated process that conditions the ability of DNA to trigger cell activation.
We speculate that neutrophil recognition of bacterial DNA might be modulated by the balance of agonists present at inflammatory foci. This effect might be relevant in bacterial infections with a biofilm etiology, in which extracellular DNA 10058-F4 mouse could function as a potent neutrophil agonist.”
“Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the adult worldwide. The most common neurological impairment following stroke is weakness or loss of sensibility of the extremities contralateral to the side of the brain lesion. Loss of sensory and/or motor function of the hand affects up to 60% of stroke survivors and constitutes
a major problem for these individuals. Within recent years, progress in technology has provided several useful objective measures to quantify the impairments of both the kinetics and kinematics of grasping following stroke. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cortical correlates of grasping and gives an overview on selleck inhibitor the application of motion analysis to quantify the degree of disability, monitor recovery and evaluate
click here modern treatment strategies to improve impaired hand function after stroke. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Our knowledge of the form of lateralized sleep behavior, known as unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS), seen in all members of the order Cetacea examined to date, is described. We trace the discovery of this phenotypically unusual form of mammalian sleep and highlight specific aspects that are different from sleep in terrestrial mammals. We find that for cetaceans sleep is characterized by USWS, a negligible amount or complete absence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and a varying degree of movement during sleep associated with body size, and an asymmetrical eye state. We then compare the anatomy of the mammalian somnogenic system with what is known in cetaceans, highlighting areas where additional knowledge is needed to understand cetacean sleep. Three suggested functions of USWS (facilitation of movement, more efficient sensory processing and control of breathing) are discussed. Lastly, the possible selection pressures leading to this form of sleep are examined, leading us to the suggestion that the selection pressure necessitating the evolution of cetacean sleep was most likely the need to offset heat loss to the water from birth and throughout life. Aspects such as sentinel functions and breathing are likely to be proximate evolutionary phenomenon of this form of sleep.