www.selleckchem.com/products/brefeldin-a.html Treatment with gemcitabine Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries resulted in significantly smaller tumors in mice implanted with shSTAT3 cells indicating that a combination of gemcitabine and knockdown of STAT3 results in a significant reduction of tumor growth over either one alone. A multitude of signaling events by STAT3 may converge to enhance tumor progression with increased resistance against chemotherapeutic agents. The findings of this study suggest that constitutive STAT3Tyr705 activation may play an important role in pan creatic oncogenesis that is independent of EGFR signaling and thus may be an important biologic target. Moreover, these data suggest that targeting STAT3 may increase response to gemcitabine and may reverse, at least in part, resistance to this chemotherapeutic agent.
Currently there are great efforts to develop clinically relevant inhibi tors for STAT3 and thus these new agents should be tested, as they become available, in combination with current Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries standard chemotherapy. Conclusions The observations of this study demonstrate that onco genic constitutive STAT3Tyr705 phosphorylation is not affected by treatment of PDAC cells with gemcitabine or AG1478 either alone or in combination. Both the agents together did not induce synergistic growth inhibition suggesting that STAT3 may be a target to enhance the overall response to chemotherapy. Knockdown of STAT3 in PDAC cells enhanced their response to gemcitabine mediated cell growth inhibition in part due to increased pro apoptotic activity as evidenced by an induction of caspase 3 activity or an increase of G1 cell cycle arrest.
However, knockdown of STAT3 did not en hance the growth suppressive activity of an EGFR inhibi tor, AG1478. In vivo orthotopic animal studies further confirmed that STAT3 could be a viable target in PDAC cells to increase the sensitivity to gemcitabine. Knocking down STAT3 significantly reduced the tumor Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries burden as evidenced by a slower tumor progression and further re duced the growth Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of tumors that is associated with a reduction of Ki 67 positive cells. This study suggests that STAT3 is to be considered a viable target to en hance chemotherapeutic response of PDAC cells. Methods Cell lines Established human PDAC cell lines PANC 1, BxPC3 and MIA PaCa 2 used in this study were purchased from American Type Culture Collection. UK Pan 1 cell line was established in our laboratory.
Cell lines the were grown in DMEM and BxPC3 cells were grown in RPMI medium. Both types of media were supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Reagents Commercially available EGFR inhibitor AG1478 was purchased from EMD Biosciences and gemcitabine was purchased from LTK Corporation. AG1478 was solubi lized in DMSO and gemcitabine was dissolved in PBS. For animal injections, pharmaceutical grade gemcitabine was used.