described a positive association between coinfection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and H. pylori and essential hypertension. Taken together, these results highlight the potential role of CagA-positive strains in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Sealy-Jefferson et al.  demonstrated that antibody levels to H. pylori predicted the incidence of strokes in a Mexican–American selleckchem population (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09–2.28). On the other hand, Laek et al.  studied a possible correlation between positivity to infectious agents, such as C. pneumoniae, H. pylori, cytomegalovirus, herpes
simplex virus, and hepatitis A virus, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) but with negative findings. A possible role of H. pylori in diabetes mellitus (DM) has been fully investigated . A study from China reported that chronic H. pylori infection is significantly associated with high levels of glycated hemo-globin A1c and type 2 DM in patients over 65 years old (p = .001) and decreased levels of insulin and insulin sensitivity in subjects under 45 years old (p = .05) . Yang et al.  also reported a significant association between H. pylori infection and DM (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.01–2.01), but not with prediabetes (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.77–1.36). Interestingly, the possible role of H. pylori in complications of DM has been also investigated. A meta-analysis
by Wang et al.  showed a possible association between H. pylori and Autophagy inhibitor nmr the risk of nephropathy (RR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.06–1.73) and neuropathy (RR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03–1.40), especially in Asian patients. Similar results were obtained in a similar study showing a positive 上海皓元 correlation between H. pylori infection and nephropathy in DM patients . On the other hand, some authors found negative results. Vafaeimanesh et al. , in fact, did not find any correlation between H. pylori infection and serum levels
of adiponectin, a marker of adipocyte function, in patients with DM, although the degree of insulin resistance was significantly higher in infected patients. Jafarzadeh et al.  reported a similar H. pylori infection rate between type 2 DM and nondiabetic controls (76% vs 75%), while the anti-H. pylori IgG titer was significantly higher in nondiabetic subjects compared with DM patients (131.63 ± 11.68 vs 54.43 ± 4.50 U/mL, p < .0001). Haeseker et al.  did not demonstrate any positive association between H. pylori infection and DM, in contrast to some viruses such as EBV and HHV6, while Vafaeimanesh et al.  showed that H. pylori eradication plays no role in the control of glycemia in type 2 DM patients. Similarly, Wada et al.  found that H. pylori eradication did not affect glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 DM, at least during the 6-month observational period. A study showed a significant positive predictive value of antibody level against H. pylori and stroke in a Mexican population (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09–2.28) . Similarly, Katan et al.