[9] described a positive association between coinfection with Chl

[9] described a positive association between coinfection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and H. pylori and essential hypertension. Taken together, these results highlight the potential role of CagA-positive strains in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Sealy-Jefferson et al. [10] demonstrated that antibody levels to H. pylori predicted the incidence of strokes in a Mexican–American selleckchem population (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09–2.28). On the other hand, Laek et al. [11] studied a possible correlation between positivity to infectious agents, such as C. pneumoniae, H. pylori, cytomegalovirus, herpes

simplex virus, and hepatitis A virus, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) but with negative findings. A possible role of H. pylori in diabetes mellitus (DM) has been fully investigated [12]. A study from China reported that chronic H. pylori infection is significantly associated with high levels of glycated hemo-globin A1c and type 2 DM in patients over 65 years old (p = .001) and decreased levels of insulin and insulin sensitivity in subjects under 45 years old (p = .05) [13]. Yang et al. [14] also reported a significant association between H. pylori infection and DM (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.01–2.01), but not with prediabetes (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.77–1.36). Interestingly, the possible role of H. pylori in complications of DM has been also investigated. A meta-analysis

by Wang et al. [15] showed a possible association between H. pylori and Autophagy inhibitor nmr the risk of nephropathy (RR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.06–1.73) and neuropathy (RR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03–1.40), especially in Asian patients. Similar results were obtained in a similar study showing a positive 上海皓元 correlation between H. pylori infection and nephropathy in DM patients [16]. On the other hand, some authors found negative results. Vafaeimanesh et al. [17], in fact, did not find any correlation between H. pylori infection and serum levels

of adiponectin, a marker of adipocyte function, in patients with DM, although the degree of insulin resistance was significantly higher in infected patients. Jafarzadeh et al. [18] reported a similar H. pylori infection rate between type 2 DM and nondiabetic controls (76% vs 75%), while the anti-H. pylori IgG titer was significantly higher in nondiabetic subjects compared with DM patients (131.63 ± 11.68 vs 54.43 ± 4.50 U/mL, p < .0001). Haeseker et al. [19] did not demonstrate any positive association between H. pylori infection and DM, in contrast to some viruses such as EBV and HHV6, while Vafaeimanesh et al. [20] showed that H. pylori eradication plays no role in the control of glycemia in type 2 DM patients. Similarly, Wada et al. [21] found that H. pylori eradication did not affect glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 DM, at least during the 6-month observational period. A study showed a significant positive predictive value of antibody level against H. pylori and stroke in a Mexican population (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09–2.28) [10]. Similarly, Katan et al.

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