However, the effects of nicotine has been disputed, some claim that the blood flow is reduced73 and others claim it is significantly increased74 or unchanged.75 The studies which show that PD values were higher in smokers than non-smokers are also present in literature.3,5,12,16,69,70,76,77 selleck chemical Tubacin A significant positive correlation has been shown between smoking and CAL.11,15,69,70,77,78 In the present study, PD and CAL values were also higher in S (+) than S (?). The reason of increased PD and CAL levels in smokers may be depend on accumulation of dental plaque and poor oral hygiene.68,69,79 In S (+) group, it was found negative correlation between CAL and the level of RBC in serum values and positive correlations with MCH and MCHC. In this study group, it was found positive correlations between mean PD values and the levels of MCV, MCH and MCHC in serum.
According to the results of this study, it seems that smoking is an important factor to affect erythrocytes and related parameters. CONCLUSIONS From the results of the present study, it can be stated that cigarette smoking could have an effect on the numbers of erythrocytes and the levels of hemoglobin hematocrit and iron in serum. Additionally, although cigarette smoking does not affect the degree of gingival inflammation, the amount of dental plaque, probing depth and clinical attachment loss were higher in smokers.
The aim of root canal treatment is to achieve a hermetical apical and coronal seal following shaping and disinfection of the whole root canal system.
In recent years, endodontic leakage studies focused on the quality of apical seal of canal system and showed that the present root filling materials and techniques failed to create an ideal seal.1�C3 Although gutta-percha is a commonly used material, it is generally accepted that gutta-percha and endodontic sealers do not provide a fluid-tight seal.4 Gutta-percha have an important disadvantage such as lack of bonding to canal dentin and sealers.5 Such disadvantage of gutta-percha have led to a call for a new and improved product. ResilonTM (EpiphanyTM, Pentron Clinical Technologies, Wallingford, CT, USA), a thermoplastic synthetic polymer-based root canal filling material, has been introduced as an alternative to gutta-percha and traditional root canal sealers. EpiphanyTM is a dual curable resin composite used as sealer combined with ResilonTM points.
According to the manufacturer, EpiphanyTM sealer bonds both to dentin and also to the root-canal filling material. This may be an important fact to eliminate microleakage since it is well-known that microleakage occurs not only through sealer-dentin GSK-3 but also through sealer and root canal filling material interfaces.6,7 Both cold lateral compaction and contemporary single cone techniques produce a mass of gutta-percha leaving space filled with sealer.8 Thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques were introduced in order to improve the three-dimensional filling of root canals.