Nanoscale topography affects cell adhesion and osteoblast differentiation [24–26]. It was reported that the fabrication of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium implants increased new bone formation significantly . To study the effect of the nanopore size on bone cell differentiation and proliferation, Park et al. used vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes with six different
diameters between 15 and 100 nm. They reported 15 nm to be the optimal length scale of the surface topography for cell adhesion and CDK inhibitor review differentiation . TiO2 nanotubes can modulate the bone formation events at the bone-implant interface to reach a favorable molecular response and osseointegration . Immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) on TiO2 nanotubes stimulates both chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal
stem cells (MSCs). Surface-functionalized TiO2 nanotubes with BMP-2 synergistically promoted the differentiation of MSCs [30, 31]. Furthermore, TiO2 GS-7977 nanotubes can control the cell fate and interfacial osteogenesis by altering their nanoscale dimensions, which have no dependency or side effects . In this study, dual-surface modifications, i.e., nanometric-scale surface topography and chemical modification were examined to improve the osteogenesis of titanium implants. First, TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated on a Ti disc and pamidronic acid (PDA) was then immobilized on the nanotube surface. The behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the dual-surface modified and unmodified Ti disc surface were compared in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation to examine the potential for use in bone regeneration and tissue engineering. The motivation for the immobilization of PDA on nanotube surface was that PDA, a nitrogen-containing
bisphosphonate, suppresses the osteoclast activity and improves the osseointegration of TiO2 nanotubes. Methods Nanotube formation TiO2 nanotubes were prepared on a Ti disc surface by an anodizing method in a two-electrode (distance between the two electrodes is 7 cm) electrochemical cell with platinum foil as the counter electrode at a constant anodic Montelukast Sodium potential of 25 V and current density of 20 V, in a 1 M H3PO4 (Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA) and 0.3 wt.% HF (Merck) aqueous solution with 100-rpm magnetic agitation at 20°C. The Ti disc specimen was commercially pure titanium grade IV. The specimen was cleaned ultrasonically in ethanol for 10 min and chemically polished in a 10 vol.% HF and 60 vol.% H2O2 solution for 3 min. All electrolytes were prepared from reagent-grade chemicals and GDC 0032 cell line deionized water. Heat treatment of TiO2 nanotubes was carried out for 3 h at 350°C in air. The morphology of the TiO2 nanotubes was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM; JSM 6700F, Jeol Co.