This suggests that E OBG can be tuned not only by dopant type but

This suggests that E OBG can be tuned not only by dopant type but also by dopant content. The undoped TiO2 film has little rutile phase detected by XRD, and the E OBG value is about 3.58 ± 0.01 eV. For

the x = 0.01 TM-doped TiO2 films, the rutile phase is minimal, and the E OBG value is about 3.56 ± 0.02, 3.53 ± 0.01, and 3.48 ± 0.02 eV for Fe, Ni, and Co-doped TiO2 films, respectively. Citarinostat However, when dopant content reaches 0.03, the rutile phase is prominent for Co- and Ni-doped TiO2 films, and the E OBG value is about 3.43 ± 0.01 and 3.50 ± 0.01 eV, respectively. For Fe-doped TiO2 film, the anatase phase is still prominent, and the E OBG value is 3.54 ± 0.02 eV. These values of E OBG for all samples are selleckchem larger than those in the literatures [17, 18, 47] but near the reported values of rutile TiO2 films [44]. As shown in

Figures 5 and 6c, the results indicate that the undoped TiO2 film is mainly composed of anatase phase and a minor rutile phase. Thus, the ARJs between the anatase and rutile phases are embedded within the anatase phase [15]. The electronic mobility from anatase-to-rutile phases is affected by the junctions. To some extent, the ARJ structure is electronically disordered. In addition, oxygen vacancies increase with increasing dopant content, which also results in the electronic disorder in the samples. Therefore, the increase of SCH772984 purchase the disorder leads E OBG to shift to lower energy [17, 18, 47]. With the same dopant content, the disorder in the Co-doped TiO2 films is the strongest and the E OBG value is the smallest. Magnetic properties of the TM-doped TiO2 films Magnetization (M) versus

magnetic field (H) curves of TM-doped TiO2 films are displayed in Figure 9. The ferromagnetic hysteresis curves are clearly found for all samples, which indicate that the undoped and doped TiO2 films exhibit ferromagnetic behavior. The results are similar to those of the literature [21, 48–51]. In addition, the M values of x = 0.01 Fe-, Ni-, and Co-doped TiO2 films at 104 Oe were the largest and about 419.7, 386.5, and 445.6 emu/cm3, respectively. The M values of doped samples decrease with increasing Enzalutamide research buy metal element contents, which is similar to the Ni-doped TiO2 powders [21] and Fe-doped TiO2 films [52]. Generally, the magnetization of samples should increase with increasing magnetic ions, but the magnetic data of these samples do not support it. These magnetic phenomena are extraordinary and different from the magnetic results of the literature [7–11, 21], which suggest that there are complex magnetisms in these samples. Figure 9 M-H curves of TM-doped TiO 2 films. (a) Fe doping. (b) Ni doping. (c) Co doping. (d) Undoped.

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