Recently, the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique

Recently, the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique has been commonly adopted [4] as a sensitive tool for determining aberrations on chromosomes. A major drawback of the FISH technique is that the fluorescence intensity only roughly reflects the local density of packed DNA inside chromosomes

and does not correspond to the topographic height [5, 6]. In addition, higher cost, staining, and the long analysis protocol make the FISH technique cumbersome, expensive, less accurate, and manual. learn more Internal interphase chromosome architecture and composition have not been addressed thoroughly because of the lack of visualization tools. There is a dire need for rapid real-time high-throughput genomic mapping and molecular marker identification tool for isolation of selleck chemical quantitative trait loci, and thereby designing crops with stress, insect, and drought tolerance [7]. Nanoscale imaging techniques allow us to examine the ultrastructure of cells in a detailed fashion [8]. Accurate topology of the chromatin (DNA and protein Pictilisib molecular weight composition) network inside a single chromosome has not yet been

characterized precisely. A chromosome is made up of DNA and associated proteins and other compounds in the nanoscale domain containing the genomic information. To understand the structure–property relationship of any organic material, quantitative compositional analysis at length scales below 100 nm is required [9]. Synchrotron-based nanoscale imaging tools offer the possibility to understand the embedding of the chromatin interaction networks inside the chromosomes. Advances in nanoscale imaging techniques especially synchrotron-based

radiation enable the molecular cytogenetics for accurate visualization and analysis of chromosomes at molecular resolution. Specifically, soft X-ray spectromicroscopy is well suited for analyzing the spatial distribution of specific elements in unstained wet or dry biological specimens Selleckchem Hydroxychloroquine [10–12]. The synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) technique provides quantitative chemical mapping at a spatial resolution of 25 to 30 nm. Genomic resources on the minor crops are less investigated. In contemporary times, quinoa has become highly appreciated for its nutritional value, as its protein content is very high (14% by mass) [13]. However, relatively little is known about quinoa cytogenetics beyond the species’ chromosome number (n = 36). To unlock the potential of rapid cytogenetic analysis, nanoscale imaging is essential in the single-molecule characterization of chromosome architecture. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy using STXM at the nitrogen or carbon edge is sensitive to differentiate DNA and protein [11, 12], and can be used for chemical mapping of chromosomes.

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