These results are of extreme importance
as this route of phage administration can provide a viable strategy for delivery of phage in a commercial context. Phages could also be given in 3-deazaneplanocin A nmr the drinking water, however preliminary experiments showed that phage needed to be administrated with antacid and this could prove more difficult to deliver with the water than as an inclusion in the feed. Moreover, in our study the phage cocktail was administered as a single dose to Campylobacter-infected chicks 7dpi. A single dose of phage is, in comparison to multiple doses , an easier and more feasible strategy in a farm situation. It must be noted that the present model does not comprise all the variables that can play a role in the use of phages to control Campylobacter in poultry. Firstly, this model considers the use of phages as a therapy and not as a prophylactic measure. Secondly, in the
present work birds were challenged with Campylobacter at one-year-old, but in a real commercial context birds just get colonized with Campylobacter Bafilomycin A1 after two weeks of age. However, these conditions were not tested in our experiments as it is very difficult to maintain chicks free of pathogens. An additional limitation of the model was the limited time course of the experiments (seven days). Nevertheless, the model described herein is a proof of principle that Campylobacter phages given orally or administered in feed can effectively reduce the Campylobacter colonization levels. Further studies need to be undertaken in order to test phage Phosphoprotein phosphatase effectiveness in older chickens, their use as prophylactic agents and longer time course trials in order to reflect the JNJ-26481585 ic50 production cycle. Conclusions The phage cocktail was able to reduce C. coli and C. jejuni in infected poultry by approximately 2 log10cfu/g, which is of great importance as they are the most prevalent Campylobacter species found in positive
Campylobacter flocks. Moreover mathematical models indicate that a 2 log10cfu/g reduction of Campylobacter on the chicken carcasses could lead to a 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis associated with consumption of chicken meals . The phage cocktail administered in feed led to an earlier reduction in Campylobacter titre than when given by oral gavage and thus this method can be easily and successfully used under commercial condition in a poultry unit. Another important aspect of the present study is that as the phages that composed the cocktail were isolated from poultry carcasses, their use to reduce Campylobacter colonisation in the live birds would not introduce any new biological entity into the food chain. Methods Bacterial strains For the single-step growth experiments, two wild type strains of C. coli, isolated from poultry and poultry products, were used as the hosts of the three phages that composed the cocktail (C.