We hypothesized that this interpersonal synchronous behavior would not be observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which are characterized by impaired social communication. To test this hypothesis, we examined eyeblink entrainments in adults with ASD. As we reported previously, the eyeblinks of adults without ASD were significantly synchronized
with the speaker’s eyeblinks at pauses in his speech when they viewed the speaker’s entire face. However, the significant eyeblink synchronization disappeared when adults without ASD viewed only the speaker’s eyes or mouth, suggesting that information from the whole face, including information from both the eyes and the mouth, was necessary for eyeblink entrainment. By contrast, the ASD participants did not show any eyeblink synchronization with the speaker,
even when viewing the speaker’s MK-4827 eyes and mouth simultaneously. The lack of eyeblink entrainment to the speaker in individuals with ASD suggests that they are not able to temporally attune themselves to others’ behaviors. The deficits in temporal coordination may impair effective social communication with others. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Endothelial progenitor-derived cells (EPC) are a cell therapy tool in peripheral arterial disease and for C646 reendothelialization of bypasses and stents. Objective: To assess EPC behavior under flow conditions normally found in vivo. Results: EPC were isolated from human cord blood, cultured on compliant tubes and exposed in an in vitro flow system mimicking hemodynamic environments normally found in medium and large arteries. EPC exposed for 24 h to unidirectional (0.3 +/- 0.1 or 6 +/- 3 dynes/cm(2)) shear stress oriented along flow direction,
while those exposed to bidirectional shear stress (0.3 +/- 3 dynes/cm(2)) or static conditions had random orientation. Under bidirectional flow, tissue factor (TF) activity and mRNA expression were significantly increased (2.5- Staurosporine and 7.0-fold) compared to static conditions. Under low shear unidirectional flow TF mRNA increased 4.9 +/- 0.5-fold. Similar flow-induced increases were observed for TF in mature umbilical vein-derived endothelial cells. Expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase (u-PA) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) were reduced by 40-60% in late outgrowth endothelial progenitor-derived cells (LO-EPC) exposed to any flow environment, while MCP1, but not t-PA or u-PA, was decreased in HUVEC. Conclusions: Flow, in particular bidirectional, modifies the hemostatic balance in LO-EPC with increased TF and decreased plasminogen activator expression. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Psychogenic tremor is the commonest psychogenic movement disorder, yet little is known of its pathophysiology.