this relation is central to both evolutionary biology and developmental genetics. Von Baer’s ideas have been both a source of inspiration this website to generations of biologists and a target of continuous criticism over many years. With advances in multiple fields, including paleontology, cladistics, phylogenetics, genomics, and cell and developmental biology, it is now possible to examine carefully the significance of von Baer’s law and its predictions. In this review, I argue that, 185 years after von Baer’s law was first formulated, its main concepts after proper refurbishing remain surprisingly relevant in revealing the fundamentals of the evolution development connection, and suggest that their explanation should become the focus of renewed research.”
“Nicotine is the main active component of tobacco, and has both acute and chronic pharmacological effects that can contribute to its abuse potential in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible role of GABA(B) receptors in acute and chronic responses to nicotine administration, VE-821 molecular weight by comparing GABA(B1) knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. In wild-type mice, acute nicotine administration (0.5, 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg, sc) dose-dependently decreased locomotor activity, and induced antinociceptive
responses in the tail-immersion and hot-plate tests. In GABA(B1) knockout mice, the hypolocomotive effect was observed only with the highest dose of nicotine, and the antinociceptive responses in both tests were significantly reduced in GABA(B1) knockout mice compared to their wild-type littermate. Additionally, nicotine elicited anxiolytic- (0.05 mg/kg) and anxiogenic-like (0.8 mg/kg) responses in the elevated plus-maze test in wild-type mice, while selectively the anxiolytic-like effect was abolished in GABA(B1) knockout mice. We further investigated nicotine withdrawal in mice chronically treated with nicotine (25 mg/kg/day, sc). Mecamylamine (1 mg/kg, sc) precipitated several somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal in wild-type
mice. However, signs of nicotine withdrawal were missing in GABA(B1) knockout mice. Finally, there was a decreased immunoreactivity of Fos-positive nuclei in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and hippocampal dentate gyrus in abstinent MK-0518 mouse wildtype but not in GABA(B1) knockout mice. These results reveal an interaction between the GABA(B) system and the neurochemical systems through which nicotine exerts its acute and long-term effects. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The clinical importance of classifying myocardial infarction (MI) into non-Q-wave (NQWMI) vs. Q-wave (QWMI) subsets is controversial and might depend on the therapeutic reperfusion strategy employed. The prognostic implications of NQWMI development following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not been reported.