memory CD4 T cells. Moreover, at different times after HIV infection, Th17 cells recirculate in response to homeostatic drain, and may show different levels depending on the patient’s phase of infection at the time of selection . Apart from infectious and autoimmune diseases, IL-17A has been shown to be associated with obesity and adipocyte development, indicating that IL-17A may mediate many interactions between adipose tissue and the immune system . Our study is the first
report on IL-17A levels in HIV-1-infected subjects with and without central obesity, and shows that IL-17A levels are negatively related to visceral adipose tissue thickness. This result suggests a suppressive role of this cytokine in adipose tissue development. Conversely, a recent study by Sumarac-Dumanovic et al. showed that serum IL-17A is up-regulated in obese human patients and that obesity is positively correlated with enhanced www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-888.html IL-17A expression and independent of other inflammatory factors . A comparison between our results and those of Sumarac-Dumanovic et al. is complex for various reasons. First, most HDAC activation of our study population were male, whereas the study by Sumarac-Dumanovic
et al. included only female subjects. Secondly, obesity was defined using different methods in the two studies. We assessed central obesity by measuring visceral fat thickness, whereas Sumarac-Dumanovic et al. used anthropometric indices . The utility of sonography has been demonstrated based on its ability to evaluate intra-abdominal fat levels . It has several advantages, such as simplicity, rapidity, availability,
safety and low cost, when compared with other techniques [8, 17]. Although unexpected, our results are consistent with recent data showing an anti-adipogenic role for IL-17A. It was Dichloromethane dehalogenase found recently that serum levels of IL-7 were decreased in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome . The authors hypothesized a down-regulation of IL-17 by high levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in subjects with metabolic syndrome . IL-17A could delay the development of obesity and inhibit adipogenesis and fat development, as shown in murine models [5, 19]. Currently, the limited data on IL-17 are obtained with different methods. ELISA and flow cytometry are the main methods used for quantitating secreted cytokines, but the results are not directly comparable. The ELISA assay permits measurement of bulk cytokine secretion but does not necessarily reflect the expression of specific T-cell subsets (CD4, CD8, NK T and γδ T cells) . Evaluation of other members of the IL-17 family and regulatory molecules of IL-17A (i.e. IL-6, IL-1β, TGF-β and IL-23) may clarify the biochemical process involved in the interaction between the immune system and somatic tissue. This was a cross-sectional study, and no conclusion regarding a causal relationship between IL-17A and visceral obesity can be made.