memory CD4 T cells Moreover, at different times after HIV infect

memory CD4 T cells. Moreover, at different times after HIV infection, Th17 cells recirculate in response to homeostatic drain, and may show different levels depending on the patient’s phase of infection at the time of selection [14]. Apart from infectious and autoimmune diseases, IL-17A has been shown to be associated with obesity and adipocyte development, indicating that IL-17A may mediate many interactions between adipose tissue and the immune system [2]. Our study is the first

report on IL-17A levels in HIV-1-infected subjects with and without central obesity, and shows that IL-17A levels are negatively related to visceral adipose tissue thickness. This result suggests a suppressive role of this cytokine in adipose tissue development. Conversely, a recent study by Sumarac-Dumanovic et al. showed that serum IL-17A is up-regulated in obese human patients and that obesity is positively correlated with enhanced www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-888.html IL-17A expression and independent of other inflammatory factors [15]. A comparison between our results and those of Sumarac-Dumanovic et al. is complex for various reasons. First, most HDAC activation of our study population were male, whereas the study by Sumarac-Dumanovic

et al. included only female subjects. Secondly, obesity was defined using different methods in the two studies. We assessed central obesity by measuring visceral fat thickness, whereas Sumarac-Dumanovic et al. used anthropometric indices [15]. The utility of sonography has been demonstrated based on its ability to evaluate intra-abdominal fat levels [16]. It has several advantages, such as simplicity, rapidity, availability,

safety and low cost, when compared with other techniques [8, 17]. Although unexpected, our results are consistent with recent data showing an anti-adipogenic role for IL-17A. It was Dichloromethane dehalogenase found recently that serum levels of IL-7 were decreased in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome [18]. The authors hypothesized a down-regulation of IL-17 by high levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in subjects with metabolic syndrome [18]. IL-17A could delay the development of obesity and inhibit adipogenesis and fat development, as shown in murine models [5, 19]. Currently, the limited data on IL-17 are obtained with different methods. ELISA and flow cytometry are the main methods used for quantitating secreted cytokines, but the results are not directly comparable. The ELISA assay permits measurement of bulk cytokine secretion but does not necessarily reflect the expression of specific T-cell subsets (CD4, CD8, NK T and γδ T cells) [20]. Evaluation of other members of the IL-17 family and regulatory molecules of IL-17A (i.e. IL-6, IL-1β, TGF-β and IL-23) may clarify the biochemical process involved in the interaction between the immune system and somatic tissue. This was a cross-sectional study, and no conclusion regarding a causal relationship between IL-17A and visceral obesity can be made.

Data were analysed using spss version 18 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL,

Data were analysed using spss version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Proportions were compared using the χ2 test and ages were compared by means of a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). P-values of <0.05 were considered

statistically significant. The ethical committee of Hospital São João approved the study design in 2007. No specific consent was obtained from the patients as the data were used anonymously. As shown in Table 1, in the sample as a whole there were similar proportions of male and female patients. Patients followed in the southern area of the country represented 59% of the sample population. Dual infections (HIV-1 and HIV-2) accounted for a minority (3.6%) of cases. Around half of the patients were Portuguese citizens (213; 48.2%).

Guinea Bissau, www.selleckchem.com/hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-hsd.html Cape Verde and Angola were the countries of origin of 33.5, 7.9 and 2.5% of the patients, respectively. The mode of transmission was mainly reported as heterosexual (260; 58.8%). Blood transfusions were the route for HIV-2 transmission in 15.4% of cases, but the proportion of cases attributed to blood transfusions has been declining over time. Injecting drug use was the mode of acquisition CAL-101 ic50 in 2.3% of patients and men who have sex with men accounted for 1.1%. Vertical transmission was rare (0.9%). The mode of transmission was not specified for 21.5% of the participants. The majority of the patients were asymptomatic at diagnosis (283; 64.0%). Lymphocyte CD4 cell count at diagnosis was available for 62% of the patients. Of these, 62 (22.6%) had a CD4 count <200 cells/μL. At the last follow-up evaluation, most patients remained treatment-naïve (200; 45.2%). However, 156 (35.3%) were on antiretroviral therapy, 14.5% of whom had experienced at least two different treatment regimens. During follow-up, at least 23.7% developed

AIDS. By the end of December 2007, 128 (29%) of the patients were alive; 82 (18.6%) had died. For 232 (52.5%), the outcome was unknown. HIV-2 infection diagnoses were distributed over time as follows: 1985 to 1989, 57 patients; 1990 to 1994, 83 patients; 1995 to 1999, 95 patients; 2000 to 2004, 127 patients and 2005 to 2007, 73 patients (Table 2). For seven patients, the year of diagnosis was not specified. Bay 11-7085 Before 1989, the majority of patients were male (39; 68.4%), had Portuguese nationality (45; 78.9%) and were living in the north of the country (44; 77.2%). The mean age at diagnosis was 31.0 (±14.7) and 37.8 (±8.9) years for male and female patients, respectively. Most patients were infected through heterosexual intercourse (31; 54.4%), but the proportion of HIV-2 infections attributed to blood transfusions was high (22; 38.6%). Forty-one individuals (71.9%) were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. From 1990 to 1994, the numbers of cases of newly diagnosed HIV-2 infection were nearly equal in men and women (41 men and 42 women). Heterosexual transmission remained the main transmission route (61.4%), followed by blood transfusion (31.3%).

After a random interval (~ 1–2 s), a high-contrast (black) high-i

After a random interval (~ 1–2 s), a high-contrast (black) high-incentive stimulus associated with a wet food reward was presented at a target location (0, 15,

30, 45, 60, 75 or 90°) to the left or right of the initial fixation point. The location of the second stimulus was determined based on a pseudorandom sequence of targets that was balanced for hemifield and for location. Each eccentricity was presented twice per column, and catch trials (in which the primary but not secondary stimulus was presented) were interleaved to make sure animals were not exhibiting non-stimulus cued orienting responses. For the laser perimetry task, a small diameter laser point was used as the peripheral stimulus. The lighting in the room was brought from 85 to 1.3 cd/m2. After fixation, a laser was projected onto one of the 13 target eccentricities at the bottom of the arena and was moved (Afifi et al., 2013). If the cat redirected its Vorinostat in vitro attention to the laser

they would receive a IDH tumor high-incentive food reward and the trial was scored as correct. If the cat did not approach the laser or did not orient correctly, the trial was scored as incorrect. In the aforementioned tasks, the visual stimulus was presented when the animal was stationary. The runway perimetry task presented the visual stimuli when the animal was in motion. This task was based on the work of Hardy & Stein (1988). The background lighting was set at 85 cd/m2. The fixation stimulus was introduced through the 0° hole, and the cat began 140 cm from the 0° position. After

fixation, the animal was released and made its way towards the fixation stimulus. When the cat was 45 cm away from the 0° position the peripheral target was then presented. Trials in which cats were able to disengage from the fixation stimulus and reorient to the peripheral target were scored as correct. Trials in which cats were unable to register the presentation of the peripheral target or oriented to the peripheral target but continued toward the central stimulus were scored as incorrect. All animals were trained to plateau performance levels prior to surgery. All animals underwent unilateral resection of the posterior parietal regions and contiguous visual areas of the right hemisphere, as performed previously (Lomber et al., 2002; Rushmore et al., 2006). On the day prior to undergoing surgery, all cats were sedated with Enzalutamide mw a ketamine and acepromazine mixture (10 mg/kg ketamine and 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine). Once the animal was sedated, catheters were implanted in the cephalic veins of the front legs and bound with surgical tape to prevent irritation and tampering with by the cats. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered to minimise brain edema, and antibiotics (30 mg/kg cefazolin, i.v.) were given to guard against infection. Ringer’s solution was administered (50–100 ml, s.c.). Animals were then placed on a warming pad in individual housing and monitored until they completely recovered.

Objective  We set out to evaluate factors affecting dental fear

Objective.  We set out to evaluate factors affecting dental fear in French children. Methods.  Dental fear was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (DF-VAS) in a group of 1303 French children (681 boys and 622 girls) aged 5–11 years (mean: 8.12 years, SD: 1.42 years). Indicators of caries and oral hygiene were evaluated on dental examination. Indicators of well-being related to oral health, dental experience, and oral health education were collected via a structured interview. Results.  Dental fear was scored low in 75.7% (DF-VAS 0–3), moderate in 16.7% (DF-VAS 4–6), and high in 7.6% (DF-VAS 7–10). DF-VAS decreased

statistically with experience of a prior dental visit. Children who had at least one decayed tooth presented a higher level of dental fear than those with no decay, while children with fillings were significantly less anxious than those without previous selleck chemical dental care. Conclusions.  This study shows that for children aged 5–12 years, prior experience of the dental setting can act as a positive component of dental fear. “
“International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012; 22: 110–115 Background.  The use of external sources

of energy may accelerate the setting rate of glass ionomer cements (GICs) allowing Everolimus mw better initial mechanical properties. Aim.  To investigate the influence of ultrasound and halogen light on the microleakage and hardness of enamel adjacent to GIC restorations, after artificial caries challenge. Design.  Cavities were prepared in 60 primary canines, restored with GIC, and randomly distributed into three groups:

control group (CG), light group (LG) – irradiation with a halogen light-curing unit for 60 s, and ultrasonic group (UG) – application of ultrasonic scaler device for 15 s. All specimens were then submitted to a cariogenic challenge in a pH cycling model. Half of sample in each group were immersed in methylene blue for 4 h and sectioned for dye penetration analysis. The remaining specimens were submitted to Knoop cross-sectional microhardness assessments, and mineral changes were calculated for adjacent enamel. Results.  Data were compared using Kruskal–Wallis test and two-way ANOVA with 5% significance. most Higher dye penetration was observed for the UG (P < 0.01). No significant mineral changes were observed between groups (P = 0.844). Conclusion.  The use of halogen light-curing unit does not seem to interfere with the properties of GICs, whereas the use of ultrasound can affect its marginal sealing. "
“International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011; 22: 27–36 Background.  Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare complex multisystemic genetic disorder. Aim.  The objective of this study was to provide a systematic assessment of whole saliva secretion and oral manifestations associated with PWS. Design.  Fifty individuals (5–40 years) with PWS and an age- and sex-matched control group were included. Whole saliva was collected.

Objective  We set out to evaluate factors affecting dental fear

Objective.  We set out to evaluate factors affecting dental fear in French children. Methods.  Dental fear was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (DF-VAS) in a group of 1303 French children (681 boys and 622 girls) aged 5–11 years (mean: 8.12 years, SD: 1.42 years). Indicators of caries and oral hygiene were evaluated on dental examination. Indicators of well-being related to oral health, dental experience, and oral health education were collected via a structured interview. Results.  Dental fear was scored low in 75.7% (DF-VAS 0–3), moderate in 16.7% (DF-VAS 4–6), and high in 7.6% (DF-VAS 7–10). DF-VAS decreased

statistically with experience of a prior dental visit. Children who had at least one decayed tooth presented a higher level of dental fear than those with no decay, while children with fillings were significantly less anxious than those without previous UK-371804 manufacturer dental care. Conclusions.  This study shows that for children aged 5–12 years, prior experience of the dental setting can act as a positive component of dental fear. “
“International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012; 22: 110–115 Background.  The use of external sources

of energy may accelerate the setting rate of glass ionomer cements (GICs) allowing MS-275 better initial mechanical properties. Aim.  To investigate the influence of ultrasound and halogen light on the microleakage and hardness of enamel adjacent to GIC restorations, after artificial caries challenge. Design.  Cavities were prepared in 60 primary canines, restored with GIC, and randomly distributed into three groups:

control group (CG), light group (LG) – irradiation with a halogen light-curing unit for 60 s, and ultrasonic group (UG) – application of ultrasonic scaler device for 15 s. All specimens were then submitted to a cariogenic challenge in a pH cycling model. Half of sample in each group were immersed in methylene blue for 4 h and sectioned for dye penetration analysis. The remaining specimens were submitted to Knoop cross-sectional microhardness assessments, and mineral changes were calculated for adjacent enamel. Results.  Data were compared using Kruskal–Wallis test and two-way ANOVA with 5% significance. these Higher dye penetration was observed for the UG (P < 0.01). No significant mineral changes were observed between groups (P = 0.844). Conclusion.  The use of halogen light-curing unit does not seem to interfere with the properties of GICs, whereas the use of ultrasound can affect its marginal sealing. "
“International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011; 22: 27–36 Background.  Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare complex multisystemic genetic disorder. Aim.  The objective of this study was to provide a systematic assessment of whole saliva secretion and oral manifestations associated with PWS. Design.  Fifty individuals (5–40 years) with PWS and an age- and sex-matched control group were included. Whole saliva was collected.

[5] In 2011, a national plan on integrated human surveillance of

[5] In 2011, a national plan on integrated human surveillance of imported and autochthonous vector-borne disease (CHIKV, DENV, and West Nile disease) was issued.[10] Integrated human and entomological surveillance is crucial to monitor the spread of emerging vector-borne diseases and to implement public health measures in order to avoid transmission and control such diseases in humans.

Moreover, establishing an integrated surveillance could be valuable also to rapidly identify the risk of introduction of new vector-borne diseases in Europe, with the most obvious candidates being CHIKV[16] and DENV,[17] not forgetting also malaria.[18] The authors thank all colleagues from the regional and local Health Services for providing data on Chikungunya/Dengue INNO-406 cost imported cases: Finarelli A (Emilia Romagna); Gallo L (Friuli Venezia Giulia); Vitagliano A (Lazio); Palumbo A, Gramegna M (Lombardia); Audenino M CP868596 (Piemonte); Prato R, Quarto M (Puglia); Palermo M (Sicilia); Balocchini E, Pecori L (Toscana); Sudano L (Valle D’Aosta); Russo F, Zanella F (Veneto). We also thank Dott.ssa Flavia Riccardo for her support with Capstats database management and the Italian Ministry of Health Special Surveillance project (Grant no. 1M61) for

funding. The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“In most years varicella is the vaccine-preventable disease most frequently reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by cruise ships. Since 2005, CDC has received numerous isolated case reports of varicella among crew members and has investigated varicella outbreaks aboard vessels sailing into and from US seaports. CDC investigators reviewed electronic varicella case reports from 2005 to 2009 and outbreak reports from 2009 to characterize the response and control efforts implemented by cruise ships in accordance with CDC protocols. Outbreak reports from 2009 were manually reviewed for details of case identification, contact investigations, isolation SSR128129E and restriction of cases and contacts, respectively, and number of contacts administered varicella

vaccine post-exposure by cruise lines. During 2005 to 2009, cruise ships reported 278 cases of varicella to CDC among predominantly male (80%) crew members, three-quarters of whom were residents of Caribbean countries, Indonesia, the Philippines, or India, and whose median age was 29 years. Cases were more commonly reported during spring and winter months. During 2009, cruise ships reported 94 varicella cases among crew members of which 66 (70%) were associated with 18 reported varicella outbreaks. Outbreak response included isolation of 66 (100%) of 66 cases, restriction of 66 (26%) of 255 crew-contacts, and administration of post-exposure vaccine to 522 close contacts and other susceptible crew members per standard CDC recommendations.

Both class I and class II antibodies were found to be significant

Both class I and class II antibodies were found to be significantly increased in SLE and SSc. Rather than major organ involvement, anti-HLA antibodies were associated with

the presence of other antibodies in both diseases. “
“B cells play an essential role in humoral immunity by producing antigen-specific antibodies. However, B cells also participate Alpelisib in vitro in cellular immune responses by presenting antigens, providing costimulation, and producing cytokines to activate and expand effectors and memory T cell populations. Recent identification of antibody-independent functions of B cells has reawakened interest in the many roles of B cells in normal immune responses as well as in autoimmune diseases. B cells interact with other immunocompetent cells during a tightly regulated immune activation process, acting as both effector and regulator. If this balance between effector CAL-101 solubility dmso and regulatory B cell functions is disrupted, harmful effects of immune activation such as autoimmunity can occur. In this review, we will discuss the role of human peripheral immature B cells in normal immune responses as a modulator of autoimmunity. We will also discuss abnormalities of these cells in pathogenesis of systemic autoimmunity with particular focus on systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis. “
“To describe the clinical characteristics, serologic, radiological and clinical disease activity, and

modality of therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at tertiary outpatient care in Qatar. The study design was cross-sectional Parvulin where 100 consecutive cases who met 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for diagnosis of RA were enrolled in this study. Demographic data (sex, nationality and age) numbers of swollen and tender joints, X-rays and current medications were collected during outpatients visits to Hamad General Hospital. Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28) and Health Assessment Questionnaires (HAQ) scores were calculated. All patients with RA who were

seen as rheumatology outpatients were invited to participate in the study. One hundred patients were seen and examined during their follow-up at the outpatient clinic; data were collected and analyzed. Females represented 67% of all patients, 6% had more than six swollen joints, 9% had more than six tender joints. DAS28 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28) calculation revealed 49% of patients were in remission (DAS28 < 2.6), 15% had low disease activity (DAS28 2.6–3.2) and 36% had DAS28 > 3.2.Mean HAQ score was 1.02. Rheumatoid factor (RF) was positive in 63%, while anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibody (anti-CCP) was positive in 71%, and 49% were positive for both. Radiography of hands and feet during the previous year was done in 65% of patients: 11% of them had erosions. Sixty-six percent were on one synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) and 27% where on more than one synthetic DMARD and 7% where on no DMRD.

C-EnterNet used the laboratory-based surveillance system for repo

C-EnterNet used the laboratory-based surveillance system for reportable illnesses in place in Ontario in which it is mandatory for clinical laboratories to 5-FU in vivo report each case of reportable disease to the local public health authority. C-EnterNet enhanced this system in ROW public health by implementing a systematic

follow-up of each reported case by a public health inspector using a standardized questionnaire (available at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/c-enternet/pdf/campylobacter-w_e.pdf). Detailed information on demographics and disease symptoms, as well as exposure to 14 potential risk factors (including travel) which may have occurred during a given number of days prior to the disease onset (ie, the number of days is disease specific and accounts for varying length of incubation) was collected.

In addition, the enteropathogen isolates were forwarded to the Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion’s Toronto Public Health Laboratory in Etobicoke, Ontario for further characterization depending on the pathogen genus. These laboratory results were then sent to the ROW public health authorities, who ultimately provided the depersonalized epidemiological and microbiologic data to C-EnterNet, Public Health Agency of Canada. Potential PF-562271 cell line duplicates were systematically checked and removed by ROW public health personnel through their routine work prior to providing the dataset to C-EnterNet. Ethics approval was provided through the ROW public health ethics review. Reported cases that could not

be reached for the follow-up interview were considered as lost to follow up and removed from the dataset (n = 145). Outbreak-related cases, as defined by ROW public health authority on the basis of epidemiological or laboratory evidence, were removed as well. The remaining cases were classified as either TRC or DC as follows. TRC were defined as cases for which travel outside Canada prior to the disease onset were recorded and the expected incubation period overlapped the travel time. More specifically, the delay between departure and onset dates had to be greater or equal to the minimum incubation period and the delay between return and onset dates less than the MTMR9 maximum incubation period. The minimum and maximum incubation periods were from Heyman:22 14 to 28 days for amebiasis, 1 to 10 days for campylobacteriosis, 1 to 12 days for cryptosporidiosis, 1 to 14 days for cyclosporiasis, 3 to 25 days for giardiasis, 15 to 50 days for hepatitis A, 0 to 3 days for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, 0 to 4 days for shigellosis, 7 to 21 days for typhoid and paratyphoid fever, 2 to 10 days for VTEC infection, and 3 to 7 days for yersiniosis. Cases not classified as TRC were considered as DC cases. In each record, a free text field allowed the public health inspector, responsible for case follow-up, to indicate his/her opinion on the probable source.

3c) on both crystalline and amorphous cellulose as well as comple

3c) on both crystalline and amorphous cellulose as well as complex cellulosic substrates, for example, alfalfa cell walls, wheat straw and banana fruit stem. Both recombinant CBM3s underwent partial cleavage by E. coli native proteases during the purification procedure. Nevertheless, the full-length recombinant CBM3 of Cthe_0059 bound strongly to all of the cellulosic target substrates; the recombinant CBM3 of Cthe_0404 showed much weaker binding characteristics to the various substrates, particularly to amorphous cellulose and alfalfa cell

walls, perhaps indicating the different recognition properties of the two CBM3 variants. The cellulose-degradation process commences with the binding of the cellulolytic enzymes and/or the entire organism to the cellulosic substrate, mediated by a separate cellulosome-borne component, the CBM3 (Poole et al., 1992; Bayer et al., 1996; Tormo et al., 1996). CBMs can serve as targeting agents for the catalytic modules of free cellulases PD-166866 ic50 or can act as a separate

Selleckchem Fluorouracil targeting module, for example, as part of the noncatalytic scaffoldin subunit of the cellulosome (Bayer et al., 1998). The C. thermocellum genome contains 20 genes encoding proteins, which carry 23 CBM3s. The CBM3s are known to either bind strongly to crystalline cellulose, thus playing a substrate-targeting role, or serve to modulate the apparent mode of action of the parent cellulase. Thirteen of these proteins are GHs and other enzymes involved in polysaccharide degradation; one is the main cellulosomal structural protein (scaffoldin CipA), and six others are hypothetical proteins of unknown function. All in all, the functional Amino acid connection between carbohydrate-active proteins and the huge majority

of genes encoding for CBM3-containing proteins could be accounted for, with the notable exception of Cthe_0059, Cthe_267 and Cthe_404. This anomaly deserved further attention (Lamed, 2010), and upon meticulous bioinformatic examination, we discovered that the N-terminal portions of the latter hypothetical proteins bore tenuous homology to the B. subtilisσI-modulating protein RsgI (Fig. S1). Systematic analysis of the C. thermocellum genome revealed another six hypothetical proteins whose N-terminal regions also exhibited homology to those of the abovementioned CBM3-containing proteins and, hence, also shared a relationship with the B. subtilis RsgI. Intriguingly, the C-terminal regions of additional proteins contained other types of carbohydrate-active modules, i.e., CBM42, PA14 and GH10 (Fig. 1). Moreover, in each case, a gene located immediately upstream of the rsgI-like ORF encoded a putative alternative σ factor resembling B. subtilisσI (Fig. 2). Such an operon-like organization of the B. subtilis and C. thermocellum sigI and rsgI genes matches perfectly one of the main criteria for the ECF σ factors (Helmann, 2002). Preliminary analysis of putative σI-related promoter sequences of the C.

Increased awareness of the service within secondary care is essen

Increased awareness of the service within secondary care is essential for its continual provision. To further optimise the quality of the service provided, training on drugs and conditions covered need to be provided especially for antiplatelets/anticoagulants as none of the Z-VAD-FMK chemical structure surveyed pharmacists provided the NMS for patients who were newly prescribed these medications. Oladapo Ogunbayo, Ellen Schafheutle, Christopher Cutts, Peter Noyce The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK The purpose of the study was to explore community pharmacy’s contributions

in supporting self-care of people with LTCs Current services to support self-care are fragmented and product-centred, and may not fully engage the whole pharmacy team There is a need for more integrated and coherent approaches to delivering support services to people with long term conditions in the community pharmacy Self-care support has emerged as a holistic approach of supporting people with long-term conditions (LTCs) and reducing its burden on healthcare professionals (HCPs)1. Community pharmacy currently provides essential, advanced and enhanced services to support people with LTCs. Community pharmacy’s role in supporting self-care of LTCs is primarily provided through services around medication reviews and medicines management. The overall aim

of this study was to explore the roles and contributions of community pharmacy learn more in supporting self-care for people with LTCs. The study is part of a larger exploratory qualitative research programme involving community pharmacists, primary care doctors and nurses, and people living with LTCs. Community pharmacists were recruited Oxalosuccinic acid by purposive

sampling from England (Greater Manchester) and Scotland (Glasgow, Tayside) between January and March 2013. Participants were selected to allow for maximal variation2 in pharmacy types (multiples and independents), location (urban, rural, supermarket), area (deprived, affluent, mixed) and pharmacist demographics (ethnicity, age, gender). Semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face at participants’ places of work or other agreed location. The topic guide evolved iteratively and focused on questions around approaches in managing and supporting people with LTCs, definition/description of self-care, practices and challenges for holistically supporting self-care, and roles of other pharmacy support staff. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and data were managed using the QSR NVIVO software (version 10). Data analysis was thematic using template analysis technique. NHS Research Ethics and R&D approvals were obtained. Interviews were conducted with 24 community pharmacists (12 in England, 12 in Scotland). All participants gave detailed accounts of how they support people with LTCs, and the roles and contribution of other pharmacy support staff.