Our results demonstrate how the advantage of learning is maximised when within-generation variability is minimised (the local environment
consists mainly of a single host plant species) and between-generation variability is maximised (different host plant species are the most common in different generations). We discuss how our results: (a) can be applied to recent empirical work in different lepidopteran species and (b) predict an important role of learning in lepidopteran agricultural pests. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Gaboxadol or 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c] pyridine-3-ol (THIP) is a selective agonist for the delta-subunit containing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors that will soon enter the U.S. market as a sleep aid [Winsky-Sommerer R, Vyazovskiy VV, Homanics GE, Tobler 1 (2007) The EEG Dinaciclib in vivo effects of THIP (gaboxadol) on sleep and waking are mediated by the GABA(A)delta-subunit-containing receptors. Eur J Neurosci 25:1893-1899]. Numerous studies have shown that systemic administration of THIP reduces wakefulness and increases sleep both in humans and rats [Lancel M, Langebartels A (2000) Gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-3-ol
persistently increases sleep maintenance and intensity during chronic administration to rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 293:1084-1090; Walsh JK, Deacon S, Dijk DJ, Lundahl J (2007) The selective extrasynaptic GABAA agonist, gaboxadol, improves traditional hypnotic SNS-032 efficacy measures and enhances slow wave activity in a model of transient insomnia. Sleep 30:593-602].
SP600125 cost However, it is yet unclear where in the brain THIP acts to promote sleep. Since the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PFH) contains orexin neurons and orexin neurons are critical for maintenance of arousal [McCarley RW (2007) Neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) and NREM sleep. Sleep Med 8:302-330], we hypothesized that THIP may act on PFH neurons to promote sleep. To test our hypothesis, we used reverse microdialysis to perfuse THIP unilaterally into the PFH and studied its effects on sleep-wakefulness during the light period in freely behaving rats.
Microdialysis perfusion of THIP (100 mu M) into the PFH produced a significant reduction in wakefulness with a concomitant increase in non-rapid eye movement or slow wave sleep as compared with artificial cerebrospinal fluid perfusion. REM sleep was unaffected.
This is the first study implicating the delta-subunit containing extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in PFH in control of sleep-wakefulness in freely behaving rats. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“1. The changes of the macromolecular osmotic pressure associated with F-actin solutions are related to the changes of the free energy of the free actin monomers.
2. By making use of the model of Biron et al. [2006. Inter-filament attractions narrow the length distribution of actin filaments. Europhys. Lett.